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Book of Moses Bibliography
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Abegg, Martin, Jr., Peter Flint, and Eugene Ulrich, eds. The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible. New York City, NY: Harper, 1999.
al-Kisa’i, Muhammad ibn Abd Allah. Tales of the Prophets (Qisas al-anbiya). Translated by Wheeler M. Thackston, Jr. Great Books of the Islamic World, ed. Seyyed Hossein Nasr. Chicago: KAZI Publications, 1997.
al-Tha’labi, Abu Ishaq Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ibrahim. ‘Ara’is Al-Majalis Fi Qisas Al-Anbiya’ or “Lives of the Prophets”. Translated by William M. Brinner. Studies in Arabic Literature, Supplements to the Journal of Arabic Literature, Volume 24. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2002.
Alexander, Philip S. “3 (Hebrew Apocalypse of) Enoch.” In The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, edited by James H. Charlesworth. 2 vols. 1:223–315. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, 1983.
Andersen, F. I. “2 (Slavonic Apocalypse of) Enoch.” In The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, edited by James H. Charlesworth. 2 vols. 1:91–221. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, 1983.
Anderson, Gary A. The Genesis of Perfection: Adam and Eve in Jewish and Christian Imagination. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2001.
Anderson, Gary A., and Michael E. Stone, eds. A Synopsis of the Books of Adam and Eve. 2nd edition. Society of Biblical Literature: Early Judaism and its Literature, ed. John C. Reeves. Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1999.
Anderson, Lavina Fielding. “Church Publishes First LDS Edition of the Bible.” Ensign 9, October 1979, 9-18.
Andrus, Hyrum L. Doctrinal Commentary on the Pearl of Great Price. Revised edition. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 2003.
Angel, Joseph L. “The Humbling of the Arrogant and the ‘Wild Man’ and ‘Tree Stump’ Traditions in the Book of Giants and Daniel 4.” In Ancient Tales of Giants from Qumran and Turfan: Contexts, Traditions, and Influences, edited by Matthew Goff, Loren T. Stuckenbruck and Enrico Morano. Wissenschlaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 360, ed. Jörg Frey, 61-80. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 2016.
Ash, Michael R. “The Mormon Myth of Evil Evolution.” Dialogue 35, no. 4 (2002): 19-59.
Ashurst-McGee, Mark, and Michael Hubbard MacKay. “Joseph Smith Translation Q&A with Mark Ashurst-McGee and Michael Hubbard MacKay.” In From the Desk of Kurt Manwaring. August 4, 2020.
Ashurst-McGee, Mark, and Michael Hubbard MacKay. “Joseph Smith Translation with Mark Ashurst-McGee and Michael Hubbard MacKay.” On From the Desk of Kurt Manwaring. https://www.fromthedesk.org/producing-ancient-scripture/. August 4, 2020.
Athay, R. Grant. “Worlds without Number: The Astronomy of Enoch, Abraham, and Moses.” BYU Studies Quarterly 8, no. 3 (1968): 255-69.

“Now for this cause I know that man is nothing, which thing I never had supposed.” So lamented Moses in utter humility after seeing in vision the complexities of the planet Earth and her countless inhabitants. Shortly thereafter Moses was to see once again the earth and her. Imagine, however, his profound astonishment when, in answer to his plea for an explanation, the Lord revealed himself to Moses and told him of even more wondrous creations. “And worlds without number have I created. . . . For behold, there are many worlds that have passed away by the word of my power.” Other heavens and earths had already expired. New heavens, star systems with inhabitable planets, would be born in the distant future. Moses would surely have felt even more insignificant had not the Lord reassured him with his presence and the counsel that “all things are numbered unto me.”

Baden, Joel S. The Composition of the Pentateuch: Renewing the Documentary Hypothesis. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012.
Bailey, David H., Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, John H. Lewis, Gregory L. Smith, and Michael L. Stark, eds. Science and Mormonism: Cosmos, Earth, and Man. Interpreter Science and Mormonism Symposia 1. Orem and Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2016.

This book features the personal perspectives of prominent LDS scientists addressing the theme of “Cosmos, Earth, and Man.” Many of these were drawn from the first Interpreter Symposium on Science and Mormonism, held in Provo, Utah on 9 November 2013. In the pages of this book, readers will appreciate the concise and colorful summaries of the state-of-the-art in scientific research relating to these topics and will gain a deeper appreciation of the unique contributions of LDS doctrine to the ongoing conversation.

Baldridge, Kenneth W. “Pearl of Great Price: Contents and Publication.” In Latter-day Saint Essentials: Readings from the Encyclopedia of Mormonism, ed. John W. Welch and Devan Jensen (Provo, UT: BYU Studies and the Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2002), 70–1.
Bandstra, Barry L. Genesis 1–11: A Handbook on the Hebrew Text. Baylor Handbook on the Hebrew Bible, ed. W. Dennis Tucker, Jr. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2008.
Barker, Margaret. The Great Angel: A Study of Israel’s Second God. Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1992.
Barker, Margaret. “Joseph Smith and Preexilic Israelite Religion.” BYU Studies Quarterly 44, no. 4 (2006): 69-82.

Terryl Givens has set Joseph Smith in the religious and cultural context of his time and raised many important issues. I should like to take a few of these issues and set them in another context, that of preexilic Jerusalem. I am not a scholar of Mormon texts and traditions. I am a biblical scholar specializing in the Old Testament, and until some Mormon scholars made contact with me a few years ago, I would never have considered using Mormon texts and traditions as part of my work. Since that initial contact I have had many good and fruitful exchanges and have begun to look at these texts very closely. I am still, however, very much an amateur in this area. What I offer can only be the reactions of an Old Testament scholar: are the revelations to Joseph Smith consistent with the situation in Jerusalem in about 600 BCE? Do the revelations to Joseph Smith fit in that context, the reign of King Zedekiah, who is mentioned at the beginning of the First Book of Nephi, which begins in the “first year of the reign of Zedekiah” (1 Nephi 1:4)? Zedekiah was installed as king in Jerusalem in 597 BCE.

Barker, Margaret. The Lost Prophet: The Book of Enoch and its influence on Christianity. London: SPCK, 1988.
Barlow, Philip L. Mormons and the Bible: The Place of the Latter-day Saints in American Religion. Updated ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Philip L. Barlow offers an in-depth analysis of the approaches taken to the Bible by major Mormon leaders, from its beginnings to the present. He shows that Mormon attitudes toward the Bible comprise an extraordinary mix of conservative, liberal, and radical ingredients: an almost fundamentalist adherence to the King James Version co-exists with belief in the possibility of new revelation and surprising ideas about the limits of human language. Barlow’s exploration takes important steps toward unraveling the mystery of this quintessential American religious phenomenon. This updated edition of Mormons and the Bible includes an extended bibliography and a new preface, casting Joseph Smith’s mission into a new frame and treating evolutions in Mormonism’s biblical usage in recent decades.

Barlow, Philip L. “Shards of Combat: How Did Satan Seek to Destroy the Agency of Man?” BYU Studies Quarterly 60, no. 3 (2021): 113-26.

Human beings in other guise lived before the creation of our world. This belief is at once controversial and durable, pervading the history of Western thought and bearing analogues elsewhere. That gods, angels, or other celestial beings rebelled against their superiors or engaged in cosmic conflict prior to earth’s creation is a related concept, widespread in the ancient world. Depictions or allusions to such contests appear in the myths, lore, art, literature, and sacred texts of Babylon, Egypt, Israel, Persia, Greece, Rome, far-flung tribal religions, and elsewhere. In certain cases, the older traditions endure even to the present, as in Sufi (Muslim) expressions of Iblis’s rebellion against Allah.

Barney, Kevin L. “A Commentary on Joseph Smith’s Revision of First Corinthians.” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 53, no. 2 (Summer 2020): 57-105.
Barney, Kevin L. “Examining Six Key Concepts in Joseph Smith’s Understanding of Genesis 1:1.” BYU Studies Quarterly 39, no. 3 (2000): 107-46.

Joseph Smith spent Sunday afternoon, April 7, 1844, in a grove behind the Nauvoo Temple. There he gave a funeral sermon, which lasted for over two hours, dedicated to a loyal friend named King Follett, who had been crushed by a bucket of rocks while repairing a well.1 Known today as the King Follett Discourse and widely believed to be the Prophet’s greatest sermon,2 this address was Joseph’s most cogent and forceful presentation of his Nauvoo doctrine on the nature of God, including the ideas of a plurality of Gods and the potential of man to become as God.3 Several times in the first part of the discourse, Joseph expressed his intention to “go back to the beginning” in searching out the nature of God, and a little before midway through the sermon, he undertook a commentary on the first few words of the Hebrew Bible in support of the speech’s doctrinal positions.

Barney, Kevin L. “The Joseph Smith Translation and Ancient Texts of the Bible.” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 19, no. 3 (Fall 1986): 85-102.
Barney, Kevin L. Review of David Bokovoy Authoring the Old Testament. By Common Consent, February 23, 2014.
Battista, Antonio, and Bellarmino Bagatti. Il Combattimento di Adamo: Testo arabo inedito con traduzione italiana e commento. Jerusalem: Franciscan Printing Press, 1982.
Belnap, Daniel. “‘Where Is Thy Glory?’ Moses 1, the Nature of Truth, and the Plan of Salvation.” Religious Educator 10, no. 2 (2009): 163–80.

While the first chapter of the book of Moses is often understood as introductory to the rest of the book, the chapter itself is an inclusive text centering on Moses’s transformation through three separate encounters with supernatural beings. In each encounter he is taught something of the meaning of truth and experiences the power that the comprehension of truth brings. His example is particularly instructive in light of the doctrine that “truth is knowledge of things as they are, and as they were, and as they are to come” (D&C 93:24).

The first section of Moses 1 contains Moses’s encounter with God (see vv. 1–11). Second is his confrontation with the adversary (see vv. 12–23). The third and final section records his meeting with God (see vv. 24–41). In these three encounters, Moses becomes a type for all who seek to understand things as they really are.

Belnap, Daniel. “‘Where is Thy Glory’: Moses 1, the Nature of Truth, and the Plan of Salvation.” Religious Educator 10, no. 2 (2009): 163–179.

While the first chapter of the book of Moses is often understood as introductory to the rest of the book, the chapter itself is an inclusive text centering on Moses’s transformation through three separate encounters with supernatural beings. In each encounter he is taught something of the meaning of truth and experiences the power that the comprehension of truth brings. His example is particularly instructive in light of the doctrine that “truth is knowledge of things as they are, and as they were, and as they are to come” (D&C 93:24).

Belnap, David M. “The Theory of Evolution is Compatible with Both Belief and Unbelief in a Supreme Being.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 16 (2015): 261-281.

Abstract: The crux of the creation–evolution conflict is a futile desire to scientifically prove or disprove the existence of God. The conflict is manifest in the common belief that creation means a divine, supernatural process and that evolution denotes an atheistic, accidental event. Evolution involves a random change in an inherited trait followed by selection for or against the altered trait. If humans use this principle to design machines, solve complex mathematical problems, engineer proteins, and manipulate living organisms, then certainly a super-intelligent being could have used evolution to create life on earth. This reasoning indicates that evolution does not prove atheism and that evolution is a constructive process. The theory of evolution is a mechanistic description and therefore, like all other scientific principles, is neutral on the question of God’s existence. Evolution is compatible with the simple scriptural accounts of creation. Consequently, belief or unbelief in God is put back where it should be — on individual choice.

Bennion, Lowell L. The Unknown Testament. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 1988.
Bergsma, John Sietze, and Scott Walker Hahn. “Noah’s Nakedness and the Curse on Canaan (Genesis 9:20-27).” Journal of Biblical Literature 124, no. 1 (Spring 2005): 25-40.
Berman, Joshua. Inconsistency in the Torah: Ancient Literary Convention and the Limits of Source Criticism.. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.
Bialik, Hayim Nahman, and Yehoshua Hana Ravnitzky, eds. The Book of Legends (Sefer Ha-Aggadah): Legends from the Talmud and Midrash. Translated by William G. Braude. New York, NY: Schocken Books, 1992.
Blumell, Lincoln H., Matthew J. Grey, and Andrew H. Hedges, eds. Approaching Antiquity: Joseph Smith and the Ancient World. Salt Lake City and Provo, UT: Deseret Book and BYU Religious Studies Center, 2015.
Boccaccini, Gabriele, and John J. Collins, eds. The Early Enoch Literature. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2007.
Bokovoy, David E. Authoring the Old Testament: Genesis-Deuteronomy. Contemporary Studies in Scripture. Salt Lake City, UT: Greg Kofford Books, 2014.
Bokovoy, David E. “‘The Book Which Thou Shalt Write’: The Book of Moses as Prophetic Midrash.” In The Expanded Canon: Perspectives on Mormonism and Sacred Texts, edited by Blaire G. Van Dyke, Brian D. Birch, and Boyd J. Petersen, 121–142. Salt Lake City, UT: Greg Kofford Books, 2018.
Book of Mormon Central. “How Do the Book of Moses and Book of Mormon Help Us Understand the Endowment?” Book of Mormon Central, KnoWhy #396, January 4, 2018.
Book of Mormon Central. “What Does an Ancient Book About Enoch Have to Do With Lehi’s Dream?” Book of Mormon Central, KnoWhy #404, February 1, 2018.
Book of Mormon Central. “What are the Origins of Lehi’s Understanding of the Fall?” Book of Mormon Central, KnoWhy #28, February 8, 2016.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #1: Enoch’s Prophetic Commission (Moses 6:26–36) — Introduction.” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. May 02, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #2: Enoch’s Prophetic Commission — The Opening of Enoch’s Mouth and Eyes (Moses 6:31–32, 35).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. May 09, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #3: Enoch’s Prophetic Commission — Enoch As a Lad (Moses 6:31).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. May 16, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #4: Enoch’s Prophetic Commission — Enoch’s Power Over the Elements and His Divine Protection (Moses 6:32, 34).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. May 23, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #5: Enoch’s Preaching Mission — Were Ancient Enoch Manuscripts the Inspiration for Moses 6–7? (Moses 6–7).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. May 30, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #6: Enoch’s Preaching Mission — Enoch and the Other ‘Wild Man’ (Moses 6:38).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. June 06, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #7: Enoch’s Preaching Mission — Could Joseph Smith Have Borrowed ‘Mahijah/Mahujah’ from the Book of Giants? (Moses 6:40).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. June 13, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #8: Enoch’s Preaching Mission — Mahijah and Mahaway Interrogate Enoch (Moses 6:40).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. June 20, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #9: Enoch’s Preaching Mission — Secret Works, Oaths, and Murders (Moses 6:15).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. June 27, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #10: Enoch’s Preaching Mission — Enoch Reads from a Book of Remembrance (Moses 6:46–47).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. July 04, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #11: Enoch’s Preaching Mission — Enoch’s Call Raises the Possibility of Repentance (Moses 6:47, 50–68).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. July 11, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #12: Enoch’s Preaching Mission — The Defeat of the Gibborim and the Roar of the Wild Beasts (Moses 7:13).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. July 18, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #13: Enoch’s Preaching Mission — Imprisonment of the Gibborim (Moses 7:38).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. July 25, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #22: Enoch the Prophet and Seer — Enoch’s Transfiguration (Moses 7:1–3).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. September 26, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #23: Enoch the Prophet and Seer — Enoch’s Prophecy of the Tribes (Moses 7:5–11, 22).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. October 03, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #24: Enoch, the Prophet and Seer: The End of the Wicked and the Beginnings of Zion (Moses 7:12–18).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. October 10, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #25: Enoch’s Grand Vision: A Chorus of Weeping (Moses 7:18–49).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. October 17, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #26: Enoch’s Grand Vision: The Complaining Voice of the Earth (Moses 7:48–49, 54, 61, 64).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. October 24, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #27: Enoch’s Grand Vision: The Weeping Voice of the Heavens (Moses 7:28–29, 40, 42–43).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. October 31, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #29: Enoch’s Grand Vision: The Earth Shall Rest (Moses 7:60–69).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. November 14, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #30: Enoch’s Grand Vision: God Receives Zion unto Himself (Moses 7:18–19, 68–69).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. November 21, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #31: Moses 1 in Its Ancient Context: Heavenly Ascent and Ritual Ascent (Moses 1).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. November 28, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #32: Moses 1 in Its Ancient Context: The Two-Part Pattern of Heavenly and Ritual Ascent (Moses 1).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. December 05, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #46: Moses Witnesses the Creation (Moses 2): The Days of Creation and Temple Architecture (Moses 2:1-27).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. March 13, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #47: Moses Witnesses the Creation (Moses 2): The Creation of Light and the Heavenly Host (Moses 2:3-5).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. March 20, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #49: Let Us Make Man in Our Image, After Our Likeness (Moses 2:26).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. April 03, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #50: Moses Witnesses the Creation (Moses 2): ‘Male and Female Created I Them’ (Moses 2:27).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. April 10, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #51: Moses Witnesses the Creation (Moses 2): Science and the Creation of Man (Moses 2:26–27).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. April 17, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #52: Moses Sees the Garden of Eden (Moses 3): The Seventh Day (Moses 3:1–3).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. April 24, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #53: Moses Sees the Garden of Eden (Moses 3): Is the transition between Moses 2 and 3 a clumsy stitch or a skillful shift? (Moses 3:4–5).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. May 01, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #54: Moses Sees the Garden of Eden (Moses 3): Spiritual Creation (Moses 3:5–7).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. May 08, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #55: Moses Sees the Garden of Eden (Moses 3): The Garden of Eden as a Model for the Temple in Israel and Old Babylon (Moses 3:8–15).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. May 15, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #56: Moses Sees the Garden of Eden (Moses 3): The Naming of Animals, Angels, Adam, and Eve (Moses 3:8–15).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. May 22, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #57: Moses Sees the Garden of Eden (Moses 3): God Instructs Adam and Eve (Moses 3:15–17).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. May 29, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #58: Moses Sees the Garden of Eden (Moses 3): The Symbolism of the Tree of Knowledge and the Tree of Life (Moses 3:9).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. June 05, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #59: Moses Witnesses the Fall (Moses 4): Satan’s Original Glory and the Symbols of Kingship (Moses 4:1–4).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. June 12, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #60: Moses Witnesses the Fall (Moses 4): The Willing and Unwilling Sons in the Council in Heaven (Moses 4:1-4).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. June 19, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #61: Moses Witnesses the Fall (Moses 4): The Tree in the Sacred Center of the Garden of Eden (Moses 3:9).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. June 26, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #62: Moses Witnesses the Fall (Moses 4): What Was the Nature of Satan’s Premortal Proposal? (Moses 4:1–4).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. July 03, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #63: Moses Witnesses the Fall (Moses 4): The False and the True ‘Keeper of the Gate’ (Moses 4:5–12).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. July 10, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #64: Moses Witnesses the Fall (Moses 4): The False Apron and the Tree of Death and Rebirth (Moses 4:13).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. July 17, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #65: Moses Witnesses the Fall (Moses 4): A Curse for the Serpent (Moses 4:14–21).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. July 24, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #66: Moses Witnesses the Fall (Moses 4): The Challenges and Blessings of Celestial Marriage (Moses 4:22–26).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. July 31, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #67: Moses Witnesses the Fall (Moses 4): Was Eve Beguiled? (Moses 4:5–12).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. August 07, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #68: Moses Witnesses the Fall (Moses 4): The Nakedness and Clothing of Adam and Eve (Moses 3:25, 4:13–17, 27).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. August 14, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #69: Moses Witnesses the Fall (Moses 4): ‘Stand Ye in Holy Places, and Be Not Moved’ (Moses 4:29–31).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. August 21, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #70: Moses Witnesses the Fall (Moses 4): The ‘Temple Work’ of Adam and Eve (Moses 4:23–25, 31).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. August 28, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #71: The Two Ways (Moses 5): The Prayer of Adam and Eve (Moses 5:4).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. September 04, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #72: The Two Ways (Moses 5): Adam, Eve, and the New and Everlasting Covenant (Moses 5:4–6).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. September 11, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #73: The Two Ways (Moses 5): The Five Celestial Laws (Moses, chapters 5–8).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. September 18, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #74: The Family of Adam and Eve (Moses 6:1–12).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. September 25, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #75: Noah (Moses 8): The Sons of God and the Sons of Men (Moses 8:1-21).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. October 02, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #76: Noah (Moses 8): Was Noah’s Ark Designed as a Floating Temple? (Moses 8:22–30; Genesis 6:5–22; chapters 7–8).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. October 09, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #77: Noah (Moses 8): Was Noah Drunk or in a Vision? (Genesis 9).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. October 16, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Book of Moses FAQ.” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. May 09, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Introduction to the Book of Moses.” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. May 02, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, and Mark J. Johnson. “Essay #44: Moses 1: A Literary Masterpiece. Hebrew Literary Features of Moses 1 (Moses 1).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. February 27, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, and Mark J. Johnson. “Essay #45: Moses 1: A Literary Masterpiece. Chiasmus in Moses 1 (Moses 1).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. March 06, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, and Matthew L. Bowen. “Essay #14: The Teachings of Enoch — Enoch as a Teacher (Moses 6:51–68).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. August 01, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, and Matthew L. Bowen. “Essay #15: The Teachings of Enoch — ‘The Son of Man, Even Jesus Christ, a Righteous Judge’ (Moses 6:57).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. August 08, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, and Matthew L. Bowen. “Essay #16: The Teachings of Enoch — ‘By Water, and Blood, and the Spirit’ (Moses 6:58–60).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. August 15, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, and Matthew L. Bowen. “Essay #17: The Teachings of Enoch — ‘By the Water Ye Keep the Commandment’ (Moses 6:60, 64).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. August 22, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, and Matthew L. Bowen. “Essay #18: The Teachings of Enoch — ‘Out of the Waters of Judah’ (1 Nephi 20:1; JST Genesis 17:3–7).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. August 29, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, and Matthew L. Bowen. “Essay #19: The Teachings of Enoch — ‘By the Spirit Ye Are Justified’ (Moses 6:60, 63, 65–66).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. September 05, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, and Matthew L. Bowen. “Essay #20: The Teachings of Enoch — ‘By the Blood Ye Are Sanctified’ (Moses 6:60).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. September 12, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, and Matthew L. Bowen. “Essay #21: The Teachings of Enoch — ‘Thus May All Become My Sons’ (Moses 6:59, 66–68).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. September 19, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David J. Larsen, and Stephen T. Whitlock. “Essay #33: Moses 1 in Its Ancient Context: Moses 1 as a ‘Missing’ Prologue to Genesis (Moses 1).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. December 12, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David J. Larsen, and Stephen T. Whitlock. “Essay #34: Moses 1 in Its Ancient Context: Moses in the Spirit World (Moses 1:1–8).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. December 19, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David J. Larsen, and Stephen T. Whitlock. “Essay #35: Moses 1 in Its Ancient Context: Moses Falls to the Earth (Moses 1:9-11).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. December 26, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David J. Larsen, and Stephen T. Whitlock. “Essay #36: Moses 1 in Its Ancient Context: Moses Defeats Satan (Moses 1:12–23).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. January 02, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David J. Larsen, and Stephen T. Whitlock. “Essay #37: Moses 1 in Its Ancient Context: Moses Ascends to Heaven (Moses 1:24).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. January 09, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David J. Larsen, and Stephen T. Whitlock. “Essay #38: Moses 1 in Its Ancient Context: Moses Passes Through the Heavenly Veil (Moses 1:25–27).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. January 16, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, Jacob A. Rennaker, and David J. Larsen. “Essay #28: Enoch’s Grand Vision: The Weeping of Enoch (Moses 7:28–43).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. November 07, 2020.
Book of Mormon Central, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, Matthew L. Bowen, David J. Larsen, and Stephen T. Whitlock. “Essay #39: Moses 1 in Its Ancient Context: The Names of Moses as ‘Keywords’ (Moses 1:25).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. January 23, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, Matthew L. Bowen, David J. Larsen, and Stephen T. Whitlock. “Essay #40: Moses 1 in Its Ancient Context: Moses’ Vision at the Veil (Moses 1:27–30).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. January 30, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, Matthew L. Bowen, David J. Larsen, and Stephen T. Whitlock. “Essay #41: Moses 1 in Its Ancient Context: Moses in the Presence of God (Moses 1:31, chapters 2-4).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. February 06, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, Matthew L. Bowen, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #42: Moses 1 in Its Ancient Context: ‘The Words of God’ (Moses 1:1–7, 35, 40–42).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. February 13, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, Matthew L. Bowen, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #43: Moses 1: A Literary Masterpiece. Many-Great Waters and Moses’ Mission to Baptize (Moses 1:25-26).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. February 20, 2021.
Book of Mormon Central, Matthew L. Bowen, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Essay #48: Moses Witnesses the Creation (Moses 2): ‘This I Did By the Word of My Power’ (Moses 2:5).” In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. March 28, 2021.
Bowen, Matthew L. “‘And They Shall Be Had Again’: Onomastic Allusions to Joseph in Moses 1:41 in View of the So-called Canon Formula.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 32 (2019): 297-304.

Abstract: Moses 1:41 echoes or plays on the etymological meaning of the name Joseph — “may he [Yahweh] add,” as the Lord foretells to Moses the raising up of a future figure through whom the Lord’s words, after having been “taken” (away) from the book that Moses would write, “shall be had again among the children of men.” Moses 1:41 anticipates and employs language reminiscent of the so-called biblical canon formulas, possible additions to biblical texts meant to ensure the texts’ stability by warning against “adding” or “diminishing” (i.e., “taking away”) from them (e.g., Deuteronomy 4:2; 5:22 [MT 5:18]; 12:32 [MT 13:1]; cf. Revelation 22:18– 19). This article presupposes that the vision of Moses presents restored text that was at some point recorded in Hebrew.

Bowen, Matthew L. “‘By the Word of My Power’: The Divine Word in the Book of Moses.” Presented at the conference entitled “Tracing Ancient Threads of the Book of Moses” (September 18–19, 2020), Provo, UT: Brigham Young University 2020.
Bowen, Matthew L. “‘By The Word of My Power’: The Divine Word in the Book of Moses.” In Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities, Volume 2. Edited by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David R. Seely, John W. Welch and Scott Gordon, 733–88. Orem, UT; Springville, UT; Redding, CA; Tooele, UT: The Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, FAIR, and Eborn Books, 2021.
Bowen, Matthew L. “‘Creator of the First Day’: The Glossing of Lord of Sabaoth in D&C 95:7.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 22 (2016): 51–77.
Bowen, Matthew L. “Getting Cain and Gain.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 15 (2015): 115-141.

Abstract: The biblical etiology (story of origin) for the name “Cain” associates his name with the Hebrew verb qny/qnh, “to get,” “gain,” “acquire,” “create,” or “procreate” in a positive sense. A fuller form of this etiology, known to us indirectly through the Book of Mormon text and directly through the restored text of the Joseph Smith Translation, creates additional wordplay on “Cain” that associates his name with murder to “get gain.” This fuller narrative is thus also an etiology for organized evil—secret combinations “built up to get power and gain” (Ether 8:22–23; 11:15). The original etiology exerted a tremendous influence on Book of Mormon writers (e.g., Nephi, Jacob, Alma, Mormon, and Moroni) who frequently used allusions to this narrative and sometimes replicated the wordplay on “Cain” and “getting gain.” The fuller narrative seems to have exerted its greatest influence on Mormon and Moroni, who witnessed the destruction of their nation firsthand — destruction catalyzed by Cainitic secret combinations. Moroni, in particular, invokes the Cain etiology in describing the destruction of the Jaredites by secret combinations. The destruction of two nations by Cainitic secret combinations stand as two witnesses and a warning to latter-day Gentiles (and Israel) against building up these societies and allowing them to flourish.

Bowen, Matthew L. “‘In the Mount of the Lord It Shall Be Seen’ and ‘Provided’: Theophany and Sacrifice as the Etiological Foundation of the Temple in Israelite and Latter-day Saint Tradition.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 5 (2013): 201-223.

Abstract: For ancient Israelites, the temple was a place where sacrifice and theophany (i.e., seeing God or other heavenly beings) converged. The account of Abraham’s “arrested” sacrifice of Isaac (Genesis 22) and the account of the arrested slaughter of Jerusalem following David’s unauthorized census of Israel (2 Samuel 24; 1 Chronicles 21) served as etiological narratives—explanations of “cause” or “origin”—for the location of the Jerusalem temple and its sacrifices. Wordplay on the verb rāʾâ (to “see”) in these narratives creates an etiological link between the place-names “Jehovah-jireh,” “Moriah” and the threshing floor of Araunah/Ornan, pointing to the future location of the Jerusalem temple as the place of theophany and sacrifice par excellence. Isaac’s arrested sacrifice and the vicarious animal sacrifices of the temple anticipated Jesus’s later “un-arrested” sacrifice since, as Jesus himself stated, “Abraham rejoiced to see my day” (John 8:56). Sacrifice itself was a kind of theophany in which one’s own redemption could be “seen” and the scriptures of the Restoration confirm that Abraham and many others, even “a great many thousand years before” the coming of Christ, “saw” Jesus’s sacrifice and “rejoiced.” Additionally, theophany and sacrifice converge in the canonized revelations regarding the building of the latter-day temple. These temple revelations begin with a promise of theophany, and mandate sacrifice from the Latter-day Saints. In essence, the temple itself was, and is, Christ’s atonement having its intended effect on humanity. .

Bowen, Matthew L. “Semitic Semiotics: The Symbolic, Prophetic, and Narratological Power of Names in Ancient Scripture.” On FAIR, https://www.fairlatterdaysaints.org. From the 2017 FairMormon Conference.

I begin this presentation with a brief explanation of the pun in its title. The adjective “Semitic” ultimately derives from the name Shem (Hebrew šēm). The Hebrew term for “name,” šēm, is identical. In Genesis 9:26, Noah invokes the blessing of Yahweh by the name-title “Yahweh, God of Shem,” which one might also render “Yahweh, God of Name” or “Yahweh, God of Renown.” Within the context of Genesis and biblical Hebrew narrative as a whole, where names dominate as symbols and signals within biblical narrative, “God of Shem” or “God of Name” constitutes an appropriate divine title.

Bowen, Matthew L. “‘This Son Shall Comfort Us’: An Onomastic Tale of Two Noahs.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 23 (2017): 263-298.

Abstract: From an etiological perspective, the Hebrew Bible connects the name Noah with two distinct but somewhat homonymous verbal roots: nwḥ (“rest”) and nḥm (“comfort,” “regret” [sometimes “repent”]). Significantly, the Enoch and Noah material in the revealed text of the Joseph Smith Translation of Genesis (especially Moses 7–8) also connects the name Noah in a positive sense to the earth’s “rest” and the Lord’s covenant with Enoch after the latter “refuse[d] to be comforted” regarding the imminent destruction of humanity in the flood. The Book of Mormon, on the other hand, connects the name Noah pejoratively to Hebrew nwḥ (“rest”) and nḥm (“comfort” and “repentance” [regret]) in a negative evaluation of King Noah, the son of Zeniff. King Noah causes his people to “labor exceedingly to support iniquity” (Mosiah 11:6), gives “rest” to his wicked and corrupt priests (Mosiah 11:11), and anesthetizes his people in their sins with his winemaking. Noah and his people’s refusal to “repent” and their martyring of Abinadi result in their coming into hard bondage to the Lamanites. Mormon’s text further demonstrates how the Lord eventually “comforts” Noah’s former subjects after their “sore repentance” and “sincere repentance” from their iniquity and abominations, providing them a typological deliverance that points forward to the atonement of Jesus Christ.

“Sing, O heavens; and be joyful, O earth; and break forth into singing, O mountains: for the Lord hath comforted his people, and will have mercy upon his afflicted.” (Isaiah 49:13).

Bowen, Matthew L. “What Meaneth the Rod of Iron?” Insights 25, no. 2 (2005): 2–3.

Latter-day Saint scholars Hugh W. Nibley and John A. Tvedtnes have discussed at length how a staff, rod, and sword came to be commonly identified with the word of God in the ancient Near East. The evidence they cite from the Bible, the earliest Hebrew commentators, modern biblical scholarship, and elsewhere affirms Nephi ’s unambiguous assertion that the “word of God” is a “rod.”

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “The Ark and the Tent: Temple Symbolism in the Story of Noah.” In Temple Insights: Proceedings of the Interpreter Matthew B. Brown Memorial Conference ‘The Temple on Mount Zion,’ 22 September 2012, edited by William J. Hamblin and David Rolph Seely. Temple on Mount Zion Series 2, 25–66. Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2014.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “The Ark and the Tent: Temple Symbolism in the Story of Noah.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 44 (2021): 93-136.

Abstract: Jeffrey M. Bradshaw compares Moses’ tabernacle and Noah’s ark, and then identifies the story of Noah as a temple related drama, drawing of temple mysticism and symbols. After examining structural similarities between ark and tabernacle and bringing into the discussion further information about the Mesopotamian flood story, he shows how Noah’s ark is a beginning of a new creation, pointing out the central point of Day One in the Noah story. When Noah leaves the ark, they find themselves in a garden, not unlike the Garden of Eden in the way the Bible speaks about it. A covenant is established in signs and tokens. Noah is the new Adam. This is then followed by a fall/Judgement scene story, even though it is Ham who is judged, not Noah. In accordance with mostly non-Mormon sources quoted, Bradshaw points out how Noah was not in “his” tent, but in the tent of the Shekhina, the presence of God, how being drunk was seen by the ancients as a synonym to “being caught up in a vision of God,” and how his “nakedness” was rather referring to garments God had made for Adam and Eve.

[Editor’s Note: Part of our book chapter reprint series, this article is reprinted here as a service to the LDS community. Original pagination and page numbers have necessarily changed, otherwise the reprint has the same content as the original.

See Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, “The Ark and the Tent: Temple Symbolism in the Story of Noah,” in Temple Insights: Proceedings of the Interpreter Matthew B. Brown Memorial Conference, “The Temple on Mount Zion,” 22 September 2012, ed. William J. Hamblin and David Rolph Seely (Orem, UT: The Interpreter Foundation; Salt Lake City: Eborn Books, 2014), 25–66. Further information at https://interpreterfoundation.org/books/temple-insights/.].

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “The Book of Moses as a Temple Text.” In Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities, Volume 1. Edited by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David R. Seely, John W. Welch and Scott Gordon, 421–68. Orem, UT; Springville, UT; Redding, CA; Tooele, UT: The Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, FAIR, and Eborn Books, 2021.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “Book of Moses Textual Criticism 1 — Article Preview: Did God or Enoch weep?” The Interpreter Foundation, August 27, 2020.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “Book of Moses Textual Criticism 2 — Article Preview: Were the Names ‘Mahijah’ and ‘Mahujah’ Inspired by Adam Clarke’s Commentary?” The Interpreter Foundation, September 3, 2020.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “Book of Moses Textual Criticism 3: Was the Book of Moses Simply an Unplanned Afterthought to Moses 1? A response to Thomas A. Wayment. ‘Intertextuality and the Purpose of Joseph Smith’s New Translation of the Bible.’” The Interpreter Foundation, September 10, 2020.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “‘The Book That Answers All the Questions’: Hugh Nibley and the Pearl of Great Price.” In Hugh Nibley Observed Introductory Blog Series, by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, FAIR. 22 April 2021.

This is the fourth of eight weekly blog posts published in honor of the life and work of Hugh Nibley.

An examination of Nibley’s work with the Book of Abraham.

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “Creation, Fall, and the Story of Adam and Eve.” In In God’s Image and Likeness 1. Updated ed. Salt Lake City, UT: Eborn Books, 2014.

The stories of the Grand Councils in Heaven, the Creation, the Fall, and the revelation of the Plan of Salvation to mankind are foundational to LDS doctrine. As it turns out, they are also the focus of a vast ancient literature by Jewish commentators, Islamic scholars, and early Christians, as well as the nexus of perennial controversies about science and religion.

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “Did Moses Write the Book of Genesis? — Old Testament KnoWhy JBOTL03B.” In The Interpreter Foundation. January 11, 2018.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. Enoch and the Gathering of Zion: The Witness of Ancient Texts for Modern Scripture. Orem, Springville, and Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, and Eborn Books, 2021.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. The First Days and the Last Days: A Verse-By-Verse Commentary on the Book of Moses and JS—Matthew in Light of the Temple. Orem and Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2021.

Like a perfectly formed pair of bookends, the Book of Moses and Joseph Smith’s inspired translation of Matthew 24 (JS—Matthew) bracket within their pages the essential survival guide for our times. In the “first days,” Adam and Eve looked forward to Christ’s coming; in the “last days,” we look backward to Christ’s mortal life and forward to His return in glory. In the beginning, Enoch learned the ordinances and covenants that would allow his people to dwell in the presence of God; to the end, we will treasure the same ordinances and covenants. Through faith in Jesus Christ and faithfulness to these covenants we hope to stand someday in the holy place with perfect assurance.

This comprehensive phrase-by-phrase commentary on the Book of Moses and JS—Matthew is the result of decades of loving study of their wonderful words. In its pages you will find both everyday guidance and the answers to life’s most important questions. Importantly, this book is a witness that the doctrines and ordinances of the temple are deeply woven into the fabric of these supernal works of scripture, containing persuasive evidence of their authenticity and antiquity. Scores of carefully selected images, coupled with detailed explanations, enrich the commentary. Rather than simply illustrating the text, they seek to enter into dialogue with it.

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “Foreword.” In Name as Key-Word: Collected Essays on Onomastic Wordplay and the Temple in Mormon Scripture, edited by Matthew L. Bowen, ix-xliv. Orem and Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2018.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “Jeffrey M. Bradshaw — The Tree of Knowledge as the Veil of the Sanctuary.” The Interpreter Foundation website. January 15, 2018.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “KnoWhy OTL03A — What Can the Architecture of Israelite Temples Teach Us About Creation and the Garden of Eden?” Interpreter Foundation blog. January 8, 2018.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “The LDS Book of Enoch as the Culminating Story of a Temple Text.” BYU Studies 53, no. 1 (2014): 39–73.

In this article, I will suggest how the LDS story of Enoch might be understood as the culminating episode in a temple text cycle woven through the book of Moses. I will begin by giving a brief summary of “temple theology” and what is meant by the term “temple text.” Distinctive aspects of LDS temple teachings will be outlined. I will then outline how the book of Moses reflects elements of temple architecture, furnishings, and ritual in the story of the Creation and the Fall. Like other scripture-based temple texts, the general structure of the second half of the book of Moses follows a pattern exemplifying faithfulness and unfaithfulness to a specific sequence of covenants that is familiar to members of the LDS Church who have received the temple endowment. I argue that the story of Enoch and his people provides a vivid demonstration of the final steps on the path that leads back to God and up to exaltation.

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “Moses 6-7 and the Book of Giants: Remarkable Witnesses of Enoch’s Ministry.” Presented at the conference entitled “Tracing Ancient Threads of the Book of Moses” (April 23-24, 2021), Provo, UT: Brigham Young University 2021.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “Moses 6–7 and the Book of Giants: Remarkable Witnesses of Enoch’s Ministry.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 48 (2021): 95-312.

Abstract: The Book of Giants (BG), an Enoch text found in 1948 among the Dead Sea Scrolls, includes a priceless trove of stories about the ancient prophet and his contemporaries, including unique elements relevant to the Book of Moses Enoch account. Hugh Nibley was the first to discover in the BG a rare personal name that corresponds to the only named character in the Book of Moses besides Enoch himself, a finding that some non-Latter-day Saint Enoch scholars considered significant. Since Nibley’s passing, the growth of new scholarship on ancient Enoch texts has continued unabated. While Nibley’s pioneering research compared the names and roles of one character in Moses 6–7 and BG, scholars have now been able to examine the names and roles of nearly all of the prominent figures in the two books and analyze their respective accounts in more detail. Not only are the overall storylines of the two independent accounts more similar than could have imagined a few years ago, a series of recent studies have added substance to the claim that the specific resemblances of the Book of Giants to Moses 6–7—resemblances that are rare or absent elsewhere in Jewish tradition—are more numerous and significant than the resemblances of any other single ancient Enoch text—or, for that matter, to all of the most significant extant Enoch texts combined. Of particular note is new evidence in BG that relates to the Book of Moses account of Enoch’s gathering of Zion to divinely prepared cities and the ascent of his people to the presence of God.

[Editor’s Note: Part of our book chapter reprint series, this article is reprinted here as a service to the Latter-day Saint community. Original pagination and page numbers have necessarily changed, otherwise the reprint has the same content as the original.

[Page 96]See Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, “Moses 6–7 and the Book of Giants: Remarkable Witnesses of Enoch’s Ministry,” in Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities, ed. Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David R. Seely, John W. Welch and Scott Gordon (Orem, UT: The Interpreter Foundation; Springville, UT: Book of Mormon Central; Redding, CA: FAIR; Salt Lake City: Eborn Books, 2021), 1041–256. Further information at https://interpreterfoundation.org/books/ancient-threads-in-the-book-of-moses/.

A condensed and simplified version of ancient evidence for the Enoch account in the Book of Moses will be forthcoming in a new book:

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., Enoch and the Gathering of Zion: The Witness of Ancient Texts for Modern Scripture. Orem, Springville, and Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, and Eborn Books, 2021. See https://interpreterfoundation.org/books/enoch-and-the-gathering-of-zion/.

In the meantime, perhaps this video version may be a little easier to digest:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HP6GYxbieNQ

Also, the Book of Moses Essays #1-30 at https://interpreterfoundation.org/book-of-moses-essays/ overlap somewhat, containing both earlier versions of some (but not all) of the findings in this article, while also including topics that are not in the paper.]

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “Moses 6–7 and the Book of Giants: Remarkable Witnesses of Enoch’s Ministry.” In Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities, Volume 2. Edited by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David R. Seely, John W. Welch and Scott Gordon, 1041–256. Orem, UT; Springville, UT; Redding, CA; Tooele, UT: The Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, FAIR, and Eborn Books, 2021.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “Science and Genesis: A Personal View.” In Interpreter Foundation blog. Reprint from Science & Mormonism Series 1: Cosmos, Earth, and Man , edited by David H. Bailey, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, John S. Lewis, Gregory L. Smith, and Michael R. Stark. Orem, UT, and Salt Lake City: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2016. Reprinted December 2, 2019.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “ScripturePlus Commentary Minutes on Genesis and the Book of Moses.” In ScripturePlus from Book of Mormon Central. English and Spanish.

English and Spanish

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “Since Hugh Nibley: Remarkable New Findings on Enoch and the Gathering of Zion.” Presented at the 2021 FAIR Conference, Provo, UT, August 4, 2021.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “Sorting Out the Sources in Scripture.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 9 (2014): 215-272.

Review of David E. Bokovoy, Authoring the Old Testament: Genesis-Deuteronomy. Contemporary Studies in Scripture. Salt Lake City, UT: Greg Kofford Books, 2014. 272 pp. $26.95 (paperback); $70.00 (hardcover).

Abstract: To date, LDS scholars have largely ignored the important but rather complex questions about how primary sources may have been authored and combined to form the Bible as we have it today. David Bokovoy’s book, one of a projected series of volumes on the authorship of the Old Testament, is intended to rectify this deficiency, bringing the results of scholarship in Higher Criticism into greater visibility within the LDS community. Though readers may not agree in every respect with the book’s analysis and results, particularly with its characterization of the Books of Moses and Abraham as “inspired pseudepigrapha,” Bokovoy has rendered an important service by applying his considerable expertise in a sincere quest to understand how those who accept Joseph Smith as a prophet of God can derive valuable interpretive lessons from modern scholarship.

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “Standing in the Holy Place: Ancient and Modern Reverberations of an Enigmatic New Testament Prophecy.” In Ancient Temple Worship: Proceedings of the Expound Symposium, 14 May 2011, edited by Matthew B. Brown, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, Stephen D. Ricks, and John S. Thompson. Temple on Mount Zion Series 1, 71–142. Orem and Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2014.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “Standing in the Holy Place: Ancient and Modern Reverberations of an Enigmatic New Testament Prophecy.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 37 (2020): 163-236.

Abstract: On the Mount of Olives, just prior to the culminating events of the Passion week, Jesus gave one of the most controversial prophecies of the New Testament, saying, among other things, that the “abomination of desolation” will “stand in the holy place.” In Joseph Smith-Matthew the Prophet renders this passage in a way that radically changes its meaning. Rather than describing how the “abomination of desolation” will “stand in the holy place,” the jst version enjoins the apostles to “stand in the holy place” when the “abomination of desolation” appears. Though several Latter-day Saint scholars have offered interpretations and personal applications of these words as given in modern scripture, it appears that no one has heretofore seriously explored how this change in meaning might be explained and defended. This article will show that other passages in the Bible, in connection with the light shed by Jewish midrash and contemporary scholarship, demonstrate that the idea behind Joseph Smith’s revision of the passage, far from being a modern invention, reverberates throughout the religious thought of earlier times. The article concludes with an appendix that tries to draw out a possibility for a specific interpretation of the prophecy about the “abomination of desolation” at the time of Christ and in the latter days.

[Editor’s Note: Part of our book chapter reprint series, this article is reprinted here as a service to the LDS community. Original pagination and page numbers have necessarily changed, otherwise the reprint has the same content as the original.See Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, “Standing in the Holy Place: Ancient and Modern Reverberations of an Enigmatic New Testament Prophecy,” in Ancient Temple Worship: Proceedings of The Expound Symposium 14 May 2011, ed. Matthew B. Brown, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, Stephen D. Ricks, and John S. Thompson (Orem, UT: The Interpreter Foundation; Salt Lake City: Eborn Books, 2014), 71–142. Further information at https://interpreterfoundation.org/books/ancient-temple-worship/.].

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. Temas del Templo en Libro de Moisés. Spanish translation of Temple Themes in the Book of Moses. Updated ed. Salt Lake City, UT: Eborn Publishing, 2014.

The book of Moses is an ideal starting point for a scripture-based study of temple themes. It is well known, for example, that the LDS temple endowment, like the book of Moses, includes includes the stories of Creation and of Adam and Eve. What is more rarely appreciated, however, is that the relationship between scripture and temple teachings goes two ways. Not only have many of the stories of the book of Moses been included in the endowment, but also, in striking abundance, themes echoing temple architecture, furnishings, ordinances, and covenants have been deeply woven into the text of the book of Moses itself.

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. Temple Themes in the Book of Moses. Updated ed. Salt Lake City, UT: Eborn Publishing, 2014.

The book of Moses is an ideal starting point for a scripture-based study of temple themes. It is well known, for example, that the LDS temple endowment, like the book of Moses, includes includes the stories of Creation and of Adam and Eve. What is more rarely appreciated, however, is that the relationship between scripture and temple teachings goes two ways. Not only have many of the stories of the book of Moses been included in the endowment, but also, in striking abundance, themes echoing temple architecture, furnishings, ordinances, and covenants have been deeply woven into the text of the book of Moses itself.

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “Ten Questions with Jeffrey M. Bradshaw [about the Book of Moses].” From The Desk of Kurt Manwaring. September 14, 2020.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “The Tree of Knowledge as the Veil of the Sanctuary.” In Ascending the Mountain of the Lord: Temple, Praise, and Worship in the Old Testament, edited by David Rolph Seely, Jeffrey R. Chadwick and Matthew J. Grey. The 42nd Annual Brigham Young University Sidney B. Sperry Symposium (26 October, 2013), 49–65. Provo and Salt Lake City, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center and Deseret Book, 2013.

One thing that has always perplexed readers of Genesis is the location of the two special trees within the Garden of Eden. Although scripture initially applies the phrase “in the midst” only to the tree of life (Genesis 2:9), the tree of knowledge is later said by Eve to be located there too (see Genesis 3:3). In the context of these verses, the Hebrew phrase corresponding to “in the midst” literally means “in the center.” How can both trees be in the center?

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “Truth and Beauty in the Book of Moses.” In Proceedings of the Fourth Interpreter Foundation Matthew B. Brown Memorial Conference, 10 November 2018, edited by Stephen D. Ricks and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. The Temple on Mount Zion Series. Volume 5, in preparation. Orem and Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “‘Worlds Without Number’: Hugh Nibley on Science and Religion.” In Hugh Nibley Observed Introductory Blog Series, by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, FAIR. 20 May 2021.

The series is in honor of the landmark book, Hugh Nibley Observed, available in softcover, hardback, digital, and audio editions. Each week the post was accompanied by interviews and insights in pdf, audio, and video formats.

One of nine weekly blog posts published in honor of the life and work of Hugh Nibley (1910–2005).

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M. “Древо познания как завеса храма (Святилища).” Russian translation of “The Tree of Knowledge as the Veil of the Sanctuary” in Ascending the Mountain of the Lord: Temple, Praise, and Worship in the Old Testament, edited by David Rolph Seely, Jeffrey R. Chadwick and Matthew J. Grey. The 42nd Annual Brigham Young University Sidney B. Sperry Symposium (26 October, 2013), 49–65. Provo and Salt Lake City, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center and Deseret Book, 2013.

One thing that has always perplexed readers of Genesis is the location of the two special trees within the Garden of Eden. Although scripture initially applies the phrase “in the midst” only to the tree of life (Genesis 2:9), the tree of knowledge is later said by Eve to be located there too (see Genesis 3:3). In the context of these verses, the Hebrew phrase corresponding to “in the midst” literally means “in the center.” How can both trees be in the center?

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., and David J. Larsen. “Ancient Affinities within the LDS Book of Enoch Part Two.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 4 (2013): 29-74.

Abstract: In this article, we will examine affinities between ancient extracanonical sources and a collection of modern revelations that Joseph Smith termed “extracts from the Prophecy of Enoch.” We build on the work of previous scholars, revisiting their findings with the benefit of subsequent scholarship. Following a perspective on the LDS canon and an introduction to the LDS Enoch revelations, we will focus on relevant passages in pseudepigrapha and LDS scripture within three episodes in the Mormon Enoch narrative: Enoch’s prophetic commission, Enoch’s encounters with the “gibborim,” and the weeping and exaltation of Enoch and his people.

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., and David J. Larsen. “L’Apocalypse d’Abraham: Témoin Ancien du Livre de Moïse (The Apocalypse of Abraham : Ancient Witness of the Book of Moses).” Invited lecture at the FAIR France Conference, Strasbourg, France. March 29, 2009.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., and David J. Larsen. “Die Apokalypse Abrahams: Ein antiker Zeuge für das Buch Mose (The Apocalypse of Abraham : Ancient Witness of the Book of Moses).” Invited lecture at the FAIR Germany Conference, Frankfurt, Germany. 28 March 2009.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., and David J. Larsen. “Enoch, Noah, and the Tower of Babel.” In In God’s Image and Likeness 2. Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2014.

One of the most prominent themes in the first eleven chapters of the Bible is a series of transgressions of boundaries that had been set up in the beginning to separate mankind from the dwelling place of God. This general thesis is useful as far as it goes. In the stories of the transgressions of Adam and Eve, of Cain, of Lamech, of the “sons of God” who married the “daughters of men,” and of the builders of the Tower of Babel, we cannot fail to observe the common thread of a God who places strict boundaries between the human and the divine. Surprisingly, however, a significant and opposite theme has been largely neglected by readers: namely, the fact that within some of these same chapters God is also portrayed as having sought to erase the divine-human boundary for a righteous few, drawing them into His very presence. The prime examples of this motif are, of course, Enoch and Noah, of whom it was explicitly said that they “walked with God.”

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., and David J. Larsen. “Preface and Introduction.” In Interpreter Foundation blog. Reprint from In God’s Image and Likeness 2: Enoch, Noah, and the Tower of Babel. Jeffrey M. Bradshaw and David J. Larsen, Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2014.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., and Matthew L. Bowen. “‘By the Blood Ye Are Sanctified’: The Symbolic, Salvific, Interrelated, Additive, Retrospective, and Anticipatory Nature of the Ordinances of Spiritual Rebirth in John 3 and Moses 6.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 24 (2017): 123-316.

[Editor’s Note: This article is an updated and extended version of a presentation given at the Third Interpreter Matthew B. Brown Memorial Conference: The Temple on Mount Zion, November 5, 2016, at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah. For a video version of the presentation, see https://interpreterfoundation.org/conferences/2016-temple-on-mount-zion-conference/2016-temple-on-mount-zion-conference-videos/]

Abstract: In chapter 3 of the Gospel of John, Jesus described spiritual rebirth as consisting of two parts: being “born of water and of the spirit.”

To this requirement of being “born again into the kingdom of heaven, of water, and of the Spirit,” Moses 6:59–60 adds that one must “be cleansed by blood, even the blood of mine Only Begotten; … For … by the blood ye are sanctified.”

In this article, we will discuss the symbolism of water, spirit, and blood in scripture as they are actualized in the process of spiritual rebirth. We will highlight in particular the symbolic, salvific, interrelated, additive, retrospective, and anticipatory nature of these ordinances within the allusive and sometimes enigmatic descriptions of John 3 and Moses 6. Moses 6:51–68, with its dense infusion of temple themes, was revealed to the Prophet in December 1830, when the Church was in its infancy and more than a decade before the fulness of priesthood ordinances was made available to the Saints in Nauvoo. Our study of these chapters informs our closing perspective on the meaning of the sacrament, which is consistent with the recent re-emphasis of Church leaders that the “sacrament is a beautiful time to not just renew our baptismal covenants, but to commit to Him to renew all our covenants.”

We discuss the relationship of the sacrament to the shewbread of Israelite temples, and its anticipation of the heavenly feast that will be enjoyed by those who have been sanctified by the blood of Jesus Christ.

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., and Matthew L. Bowen. “‘By the Blood Ye Are Sanctified’: The Symbolic, Salvific, Interrelated, Additive, Retrospective, and Anticipatory Nature of the Ordinances of Spiritual Rebirth in John 3 and Moses 6.” In Sacred Time, Sacred Space, and Sacred Meaning. Proceedings of the Third Interpreter Foundation Matthew B. Brown Memorial Conference, 5 November 2016, Stephen D. Ricks and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, eds., 43–237. The Temple on Mount Zion Series. Vol. 4. Orem and Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2020.

Abstract: In chapter 3 of the Gospel of John, Jesus described spiritual rebirth as consisting of two parts: being “born of water and of the spirit.” To this requirement of being “born again into the kingdom of heaven, of water, and of the Spirit,” Moses 6:59–60 adds that one must “be cleansed by blood, even the blood of mine Only Begotten; … For … by the blood ye are sanctified.”

In this article, we will discuss the symbolism of water, spirit, and blood in scripture as they are actualized in the process of spiritual rebirth. We will highlight in particular the symbolic, salvific, interrelated, additive, retrospective, and anticipatory nature of these ordinances within the allusive and sometimes enigmatic descriptions of John 3 and Moses 6. Moses 6:51–68, with its dense infusion of temple themes, was revealed to the Prophet in December 1830, when the Church was in its infancy and more than a decade before the fulness of priesthood ordinances was made available to the Saints in Nauvoo. Our study of these chapters informs our closing perspective on the meaning of the sacrament, which is consistent with the recent re-emphasis of Church leaders that the “sacrament is a beautiful time to not just renew our baptismal covenants, but to commit to Him to renew all our covenants.”

We discuss the relationship of the sacrament to the shewbread of Israelite temples, and its anticipation of the heavenly feast that will be enjoyed by those who have been sanctified by the blood of Jesus Christ.

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., and Matthew L. Bowen. “‘Made Stronger Than Many Waters’: The Names of Moses as Keywords in the Heavenly Ascent of Moses.” In The Temple: Past, Present and Future. Proceedings of the Fifth Interpreter Foundation Matthew B. Brown Memorial Conference, 7 November 2020, edited by Stephen D. Ricks and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. The Temple on Mount Zion Series. Vol. 6. Orem and Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2021.

The idea of names as “keywords” has been associated with temples since very early times. In a temple context, the meaning of the term “keyword” can be taken quite literally: the use of the appropriate keyword or keywords by a qualified worshipper “unlocks” each one of a successive series of gates, thus providing access to specific, secured areas of the sacred space. In this presentation, we will explore how a series of names and titles purportedly given to Moses at various points in his life might relate to accounts of his ascents to heaven.

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., and Matthew L. Bowen. “‘Made Stronger Than Many Waters’: The Purported Sacred Names of Moses as a Series of Keywords.” In Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities, Volume 2. Edited by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David R. Seely, John W. Welch and Scott Gordon, 943–1000. Orem, UT; Springville, UT; Redding, CA; Tooele, UT: The Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, FAIR, and Eborn Books, 2021.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., and Matthew L. Bowen. “‘Veren kautta teidät pyhitetään’: Toimitusten ja hengellisen uudestisyntymisen vertauskuvallinen, pelastava, toisiinsa liittyvä, kertyvä, taaksepäin katsova ja ennakoiva luonne Johanneksen evankeliumin kolmannessa ja Mooseksen kirjan ensimmäisessä luvussa.” Finnish translation of “‘By the Blood Ye Are Sanctified’: The Symbolic, Salvific, Interrelated, Additive, Retrospective, and Anticipatory Nature of the Ordinances of Spiritual Rebirth in John 3 and Moses 6.”.

[Editor’s Note: This article is an updated and extended version of a presentation given at the Third Interpreter Matthew B. Brown Memorial Conference: The Temple on Mount Zion, November 5, 2016, at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah. For a video version of the presentation, see https://interpreterfoundation.org/conferences/2016-temple-on-mount-zion-conference/2016-temple-on-mount-zion-conference-videos/]

Abstract: In chapter 3 of the Gospel of John, Jesus described spiritual rebirth as consisting of two parts: being “born of water and of the spirit.”

To this requirement of being “born again into the kingdom of heaven, of water, and of the Spirit,” Moses 6:59–60 adds that one must “be cleansed by blood, even the blood of mine Only Begotten; … For … by the blood ye are sanctified.”

In this article, we will discuss the symbolism of water, spirit, and blood in scripture as they are actualized in the process of spiritual rebirth. We will highlight in particular the symbolic, salvific, interrelated, additive, retrospective, and anticipatory nature of these ordinances within the allusive and sometimes enigmatic descriptions of John 3 and Moses 6. Moses 6:51–68, with its dense infusion of temple themes, was revealed to the Prophet in December 1830, when the Church was in its infancy and more than a decade before the fulness of priesthood ordinances was made available to the Saints in Nauvoo. Our study of these chapters informs our closing perspective on the meaning of the sacrament, which is consistent with the recent re-emphasis of Church leaders that the “sacrament is a beautiful time to not just renew our baptismal covenants, but to commit to Him to renew all our covenants.”

We discuss the relationship of the sacrament to the shewbread of Israelite temples, and its anticipation of the heavenly feast that will be enjoyed by those who have been sanctified by the blood of Jesus Christ.

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., and Ryan Dahle. “Could Joseph Smith Have Drawn on Ancient Manuscripts When He Translated the Story of Enoch?: Recent Updates on a Persistent Question.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 33 (2019): 305-374.

Abstract: In this article, we offer a general critique of scholarship that has argued for Joseph Smith’s reliance on 1 Enoch or other ancient pseudepigrapha for the Enoch chapters in the Book of Moses. Our findings highlight the continued difficulties of scholars to sustain such arguments credibly. Following this general critique, we describe the current state of research relating to what Salvatore Cirillo took to be the strongest similarity between Joseph Smith’s chapters on Enoch and the Qumran Book of Giants — namely the resemblance between the name Mahawai in the Book of Giants and Mahujah/Mahijah in Joseph Smith’s Enoch account. We conclude this section with summaries of conversations of Gordon C. Thomasson and Hugh Nibley with Book of Giants scholar Matthew Black about these names. Next, we explain why even late and seemingly derivative sources may provide valuable new evidence for the antiquity of Moses 6–7 or may corroborate details from previously known Enoch sources. By way of example, we summarize preliminary research that compares passages in Moses 6–7 to newly available ancient Enoch texts from lesser known sources. We conclude with a discussion of the significance of findings that situate Joseph Smith’s Enoch account in an ancient milieu. Additional work is underway to provide a systematic and detailed analysis of ancient literary affinities in Moses 6–7, including an effort sponsored by Book of Mormon Central in collaboration with The Interpreter Foundation.

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., David J. Larsen, and Stephen T. Whitlock. “Moses 1 and the Apocalypse of Abraham: Twin Sons of Different Mothers?” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 38 (2020): 179-290.

Abstract: This article highlights the striking resemblances between Moses 1 and a corresponding account from the Apocalypse of Abraham (ApAb), one of the earliest and most important Jewish texts describing heavenly ascent. Careful comparative analysis demonstrates a sustained sequence of detailed affinities in narrative structure that go beyond what Joseph Smith could have created out of whole cloth from his environment and his imagination. The article also highlights important implications for the study of the Book of Moses as a temple text. Previous studies have suggested that the story of Enoch found in the Pearl of Great Price might be understood as the culminating episode of a temple text woven throughout chapters 2–8 of the Book of Moses. The current article is a conceptual bookend to these earlier studies, demonstrating that the account of heavenly ascent in Moses 1 provides a compelling prelude to a narrative outlining laws and liturgy akin to what could have been used anciently as part of ritual ascent within earthly temples.

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., David J. Larsen, and Stephen T. Whitlock. “Moses 1 and the Apocalypse of Abraham: Twin Sons of Different Mothers?” Presented at the conference entitled “Tracing Ancient Threads of the Book of Moses” (September 18–19, 2020), Provo, UT: Brigham Young University 2020.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., David J. Larsen, and Stephen T. Whitlock. “Moses 1 and the Apocalypse of Abraham: Twin Sons of Different Mothers?” In Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities, Volume 2. Edited by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David R. Seely, John W. Welch and Scott Gordon, 789–922. Orem, UT; Springville, UT; Redding, CA; Tooele, UT: The Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, FAIR, and Eborn Books, 2021.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., David Rolph Seely, John W. Welch, and Scott Gordon, eds. Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities. Volume 1. Proceedings of the Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses Conference, September 18-19, 2020 and April 23–24, 2021. Volume 1 of 2. Orem, UT; Springville, UT; Redding, CA; Tooele, UT: The Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, FAIR, and Eborn Books, 2021.

Volume I:

Keynote Overviews

Inspired Origins and Historical Contexts

Volume II

Literary Explorations

Moses 1: Temple Echoes in the Heavenly Ascent of Moses

Moses 6–7: Enoch’s Divine Ministry

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., David Rolph Seely, John W. Welch, and Scott Gordon, eds. Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities. Volume 2. Proceedings of the Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses Conference, September 18-19, 2020 and April 23–24, 2021. Volume 2 of 2. Orem, UT; Springville, UT; Redding, CA; Tooele, UT: The Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, FAIR, and Eborn Books, 2021.

Volume I:

Keynote Overviews

Inspired Origins and Historical Contexts

Volume II

Literary Explorations

Moses 1: Temple Echoes in the Heavenly Ascent of Moses

Moses 6–7: Enoch’s Divine Ministry

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., Jacob A. Rennaker, and David J. Larsen. “Revisiting the Forgotten Voices of Weeping in Moses 7: A Comparison with Ancient Texts.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 2 (2012): 41-71.

Abstract: The LDS Book of Moses is remarkable in its depiction of the suffering of the wicked at the time of the Flood. According to this text, there are three parties directly involved in the weeping: God (Moses 7:28; cf. v. 29), the heavens (Moses 7:28, 37), and Enoch (Moses 7:41, 49). In addition, a fourth party, the earth, mourns—though does not weep—for her children (Moses 7:48–49). The passages that speak of the weeping God and the mourning earth have received the greatest share of attention by scholars. The purpose of this article is to round out the previous discussion so as to include new insights and ancient parallels to the two voices of weeping that have been largely forgotten—that of Enoch and that of the heavens. ((An expanded and revised version of material contained in this study will appear as part of Jeffrey M. Bradshaw and David J. Larsen, Enoch, Noah, and the Tower of Babel (Salt Lake City, UT: Eborn Publishing, forthcoming, 2014). All translations from non-English sources are by the first author unless otherwise specifically noted.)) .

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., Matthew L. Bowen, and Ryan Dahle. “Textual Criticism and the Book of Moses: A Response to Colby Townsend’s ‘Returning to the Sources,’ Part 1 of 2.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 40 (2020): 99-162.

Review of Colby Townsend, “Returning to the Sources: Integrating Textual Criticism in the Study of Early Mormon Texts and History.” Intermountain West Journal of Religious Studies 10, no. 1 (2019): 55–85, https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/imwjournal/vol10/iss1/6/.

Abstract: Textual criticism tries by a variety of methods to understand the “original” or “best” wording of a document that may exist in multiple, conflicting versions or where the manuscripts are confusing or difficult to read. The present article, Part 1 of a two-part series by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw and Ryan Dahle, commends Colby Townsend’s efforts to raise awareness of the importance of textual criticism, while differing on some interpretations. Among the differences discussed is the question of whether it is better to read Moses 7:28 as it was dictated in Old Testament 1 version of the Joseph Smith Translation manuscript (OT1) that “God wept,” or rather to read it as it was later revised in the Old Testament 2 version (OT2) that “Enoch wept.” Far from being an obscure technical detail, the juxtaposition of the two versions of this verse raises general questions as to whether readings based on the latest revisions of Latter-day Saint scripture manuscripts should always take priority over the original dictations. A dialogue with Colby Townsend and Charles Harrell on rich issues of theological and historical relevance demonstrates the potential impact of the different answers to such questions by different scholars. In a separate discussion that highlights the potential significance of handwriting analysis to textual criticism, Bradshaw and Dahle respond to Townsend’s arguments that the spelling difference between the names Mahujah and Mahijah in the Book of Moses may be due to a transcription error.

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., Matthew L. Bowen, and Ryan Dahle. “Where Did the Names Mahaway and Mahujah Come From? A Response to Colby Townsend’s ‘Returning to the Sources,’ Part 2 of 2.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 40 (2020): 181-242.

Review of Colby Townsend, “Returning to the Sources: Integrating Textual Criticism in the Study of Early Mormon Texts and History,” Intermountain West Journal of Religious Studies 10, no. 1 (2019): 55–85, https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/imwjournal/vol10/iss1/6/.

Abstract: In the present article, Part 2 of 2 of a set of articles supporting Colby Townsend’s efforts to raise awareness of the importance of textual criticism, we focus on his argument that Joseph Smith created the Book of Moses names Mahijah and Mahujah after seeing a table of name variants in the Hebrew text of Genesis 4:18 in a Bible commentary written by Adam Clarke. While we are not averse in principle to the general possibility that Joseph Smith may have relied on study aids as part of his translation of the Bible, we discuss why in this case such a conjecture raises more questions than it answers. We argue that a common ancient source for Mahujah and Mahijah in the Book of Moses and similar names in the Bible and an ancient Dead Sea Scrolls Enoch text named the Book of Giants cannot be ruled out. More broadly, we reiterate and expand upon arguments we have made elsewhere that the short and fragmentary Book of Giants, a work not discovered until 1948, contains much more dense and generally more pertinent resemblances to Moses 6‒7 than the much longer 1 Enoch, the only ancient Enoch text outside the Bible that was published and translated into English in Joseph Smith’s lifetime.

Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., Matthew L. Bowen, Ryan Dahle, Mark J. Johnson, Stephen T. Whitlock, and others. Book of Moses Essays. Seventy-Seven Essays on the Book of Moses. In Pearl of Great Price Central; The Interpreter Foundation. 2020-21.
Brayford, Susan, ed. Septuagint Genesis: A Commentary Based on the Greek Text of Codex Alexandrinus. Septuagint Commentary. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers, 2007.
Brigham Young University. Pearl of Great Price Symposium: A Centennial Presentation, November 22, 1975. Robert J. Matthews, Chairman. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University [The Department of Ancient Scripture], 1976.
Brigham Young University. Tenth Annual Sidney B. Sperry Symposium: The Pearl of Great Price, January 30, 1982. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University and the Church Educational System, 1985.
Brown, S. Kent. “Enoch, the Book of Moses, and the Book of Giants: More Light on the 1977 Visit of Professor Matthew Black to BYU.” In Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, FAIR Blog Posts, May 17, 2021.

A discussion of remarks given at Brigham Young University by Professor Matthew Black and his wife, Ethel.

Brown, S. Kent. “Man and Son of Man: Issues of Theology and Christology.” In The Pearl of Great Price: Revelations from God, edited by H. Donl Peterson and Charles D. Tate, Jr., 57–72. Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 1989.

First, I want to deal with the figure of the Son of Man in ancient literature, reviewing along the way what current biblical scholarship says about this personality, especially since he is mentioned prominently in nonscriptural sources. Second, I intend to treat the question of the anthropomorphic view of God in scripture, specifically in the Old Testament. Third, I wish to touch on the issue of the nature of the titles used for deity throughout scripture, for we all have the impression that a great many are applied to God, especially within the pages of the Old Testament. Fourth and last, I want to single out the parallels in ancient Christian and Jewish literature to the remarkable, almost singular theological position to which we Latter-day Saints are committed when we call deity a Man, whether Man of Holiness, Man of Counsel (Moses 7:35), or some similar title.

Brown, S. Kent, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Man and Son of Man: Probing Theology and Christology in the Book of Moses and in Jewish and Christian Tradition.” Presented at the conference entitled “Tracing Ancient Threads of the Book of Moses” (April 23-24, 2021), Provo, UT: Brigham Young University 2021.
Brown, S. Kent, and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. “Man and Son of Man: Probing Theology and Christology in the Book of Moses and in Jewish and Christian Tradition.” In Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities, Volume 2. Edited by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David R. Seely, John W. Welch and Scott Gordon, 1257–332. Orem, UT; Springville, UT; Redding, CA; Tooele, UT: The Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, FAIR, and Eborn Books, 2021.
Brown, Samuel Morris. Joseph Smith’s Translation: The Words and Worlds of Early Mormonism. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2020.
Bruno, Cheryl L. “Congruence and Concatenation in Jewish Mystical Literature, American Freemasonry, and Mormon Enoch Writings.” Journal of Religion and Society 16 (2014): 1–19.

The Biblical character Enoch is a central figure in early Jewish mystical literature, where his story is redolent with themes related to the concepts of transformation and communion with the Divine. This rich and mythic wisdom significantly influenced American Royal Arch Freemasonry, and through it, early Mormonism. This paper explores the shared aspects of these traditions: where they overlap, and specifically, where Mormonism may rely upon Freemasonry. The Enoch pseudepigrapha and their Masonic and Mormon iterations are presented as a series of related mystical traditions. Linked by common themes of theophany, grand assembly, and heavenly ascent, they are utilized in similar, yet innovative ways to impart spiritual truth to their followers.

Buchanan, Bryan. “Enoch and Noah on Steroids.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 8 (2014): 81-85.

Review of Jeffrey M. Bradshaw and David J. Larsen, In God’s Image and Likeness 2: Enoch, Noah, and the Tower of Babel (Salt Lake City, Utah: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2014), 590 pp. (full color interior includes footnotes; endnotes; three excursus sections; annotated bibliography on Enoch and the Flood; comprehensive reference list; thumbnail index of one hundred and eleven illustrations and photographs; and indexes of scriptures referenced, modern prophets quoted, and topics discussed). $49.99 (hardcover).

Reprinted with the kind permission of the Association for Mormon Letters.

Budge, E. A. Wallis. The Book of the Bee. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press, 1886.
Budge, E. A. Wallis. Coptic Martyrdoms, etc., in the Dialect of Upper Egypt. London, England: The British Museum, 1914.
Budge, E. A. Wallis, ed. The Book of the Cave of Treasures. London, England: The Religious Tract Society, 1927. Reprint, New York City, NY: Cosimo Classics, 2005.
Bulloch, Kevin M. “The War in Heaven and Satan’s Continuing Battle for Power.” Religious Educator 11, no. 1 (2010): 33–46.

Many parents, as they have labored through the process of raising a teenager, may have wondered at times if Satan’s idea of destroying agency was such a bad idea. However, most parents have learned from experience that trying to control a child’s decisions, even in the right direction, can often result in the child’s rebellion. Very few, if any, like to be forced to do something, even if it is good. Having the right to live according to our personal desires and to exercise our agency, even if what we choose is not wise or good for us, is very precious to us. We prize our moral agency so highly that any attempt to undermine, circumvent, manipulate, control, or eliminate it often leads to conflict. These battles have spanned heaven and earth and have included both individuals and great assemblies.

Bushman, Richard L. “Mormon, Moses, and the Representation of Reality.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 46 (2021): 291-312.

Abstract: In this essay, Richard Bushman borrows a critical perspective from Erich Auerbach’s Mimesis: The Representation of Reality in Western Literature. He analyzes the representation of antiquity in two of Joseph Smith’s striking translations, the Book of Mormon and the Book of Moses. The two texts, produced within a few years of one another, created distinctive stages on which to dramatize the human-God relationship. The question is: What can we learn from this comparison about God, prophets, and human destiny?

[Editor’s Note: Part of our book chapter reprint series, this article is reprinted here as a service to the Latter-day Saint community. Original pagination and page numbers have necessarily changed, otherwise the reprint has the same content as the original.

See Richard L. Bushman, “Mormon, Moses, and the Representation of Reality,” in Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities, edited by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David R. Seely, John W. Welch and Scott Gordon (Orem, UT: The Interpreter Foundation; Springville, UT: Book of Mormon Central; Redding, CA: FAIR; Tooele, UT: Eborn Books, 2021), 51–74. Further information at https://interpreterfoundation.org/books/ancient-threads-in-the-book-of-moses/.].

Bushman, Richard L. “Mormon, Moses, and the Representation of Reality.” Presented at the conference entitled “Tracing Ancient Threads of the Book of Moses” (April 23-24, 2021), Provo, UT: Brigham Young University 2021.
Bushman, Richard L. “Mormon, Moses, and the Representation of Reality.” In Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities, Volume 1. Edited by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David R. Seely, John W. Welch and Scott Gordon, 51–74. Orem, UT; Springville, UT; Redding, CA; Tooele, UT: The Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, FAIR, and Eborn Books, 2021.
Bushman, Richard L. “The Pearl of Greatest Price: Mormonism’s Most Controversial Scripture.” BYU Studies Quarterly 59, no. 4 (2020): 181-84.
BYU Religious Studies Center. “BYU Religious Education Discussions on the Pearl of Great Price: Atonement and Rebirth.” Originally aired: 6/14/2004.

Discussions on the Pearl of Great Price — Atonement and Rebirth

Listen as religion faculty from Brigham Young University discuss the doctrines and themes of Atonement and rebirth that are found in the Pearl of Great Price.

BYU Religious Studies Center. “BYU Religious Education Discussions on the Pearl of Great Price: Obedience and Sacrifice.” Originally aired: 4/18/2004.

Discussions on the Pearl of Great Price — Obedience and Sacrifice/The Bicycle

Members of BYU\'s religion department discuss docrtines and themes of obedience and sacrifice found in the Pearl of Great Price.

BYU Religious Studies Center. “BYU Religious Education Discussions on the Pearl of Great Price: The Ministry of Enoch.” Originally aired: 2/28/2004.

Discussions on the Pearl of Great Price — The Ministry of Enoch

Brigham Young University professors discuss the ministry of ancient prophets.

BYU Religious Studies Center. “BYU Religious Education Discussions on the Pearl of Great Price: The Pre-Mortal Life.” Originally aired: 4/4/2004.

Discussions on the Pearl of Great Price — The Premortal Life/Canning/Boarding House

BYU religion faculty members discuss the doctrines found in the Pearl of Great Price about the premortal life.

BYU TV. “That Promised Day: The Coming Forth of the LDS Scriptures.” In BYU TV. 2010.

This documentary film outlines the development of the 1979/1981 editions of the LDS Bible and Book of Mormon. Deepen your appreciation for the massive effort made to create the Topical Guide, Bible Dictionary, Joseph Smith Translation, footnotes, maps, and more. Listen to those who worked on the project over 30 years ago and hear their inspired experiences.

Calabro, David M. “An Early Christian Context for the Book of Moses.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 47 (2021): 181-262.

Abstract: This study argues that the Book of Moses was an early Christian text. The book’s language, literary genre, and references to its own production could fit with a date in the late first century ad. Further, the study argues that a possible ritual context of the book was a baptismal ritual, as suggested by the detailed description of Adam’s baptism in Moses 6. A comparison between the content of the Book of Moses and early Christian sources on baptism shows some close resemblances, which may suggest that the Book of Moses was read aloud, and perhaps portrayed as a ritual drama, on sacred space during a baptismal ritual.

Calabro, David M. “An Early Christian Context for the Book of Moses.” Presented at the conference entitled “Tracing Ancient Threads of the Book of Moses” (April 23-24, 2021), Provo, UT: Brigham Young University 2021.
Calabro, David M. “An Early Christian Context for the Book of Moses.” In Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities, Volume 1. Edited by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David R. Seely, John W. Welch and Scott Gordon, 505–90. Orem, UT; Springville, UT; Redding, CA; Tooele, UT: The Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, FAIR, and Eborn Books, 2021.
Calabro, David M. “Early Christian Temples and Baptism for the Dead: Defining Sacred Space in the Late Antique Near East.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 46 (2021): 77-100.

Abstract: This paper addresses the early Christian transition from temple-based Judaism to the Constantinian basilica of the fourth century. David argues that some Christians of the second and early third centuries may have had places of worship that, while not monumental in scale, qualify typologically as temples and were understood as such. These sacred structures may have been used for the performance of baptisms for the dead, as suggested by Doctrine and Covenants 124. In support of this thesis, he takes as case studies the Christian places of worship at ancient Edessa and Dura Europos, based on a combination of textual sources and archaeological remains. David then briefly applies these findings to a question posed years ago in studies by Hugh Nibley and John Lundquist, “What Is a Temple?”

[Editor’s Note: Part of our book chapter reprint series, this article is reprinted here as a service to the Latter-day Saint community. Original pagination and page numbers have necessarily changed, otherwise the reprint has the same content as the original.

See David Calabro, “From temple to church: Defining sacred space in the Near East,” in The Temple: Past, Present, and Future. Proceedings of the Fifth Interpreter Foundation Matthew B. Brown Memorial Conference, 7 November 2020, ed. Stephen D. Ricks and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw (Orem, UT: The Interpreter Foundation; Salt Lake City: Eborn Books, 2021), page numbers forthcoming. Further information at https://interpreterfoundation.org/books/the-temple-past-present-and-future/.]Introduction.

Calabro, David M. “Early Christian Temples and Baptism for the Dead: Defining Sacred Space in the Late Antique Near East.” In The Temple: Past, Present and Future. Proceedings of the Fifth Interpreter Foundation Matthew B. Brown Memorial Conference, 7 November 2020, edited by Stephen D. Ricks and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw. The Temple on Mount Zion Series. Vol. 6. Orem and Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2021.

Abstract: This paper addresses the early Christian transition from temple-based Judaism to the Constantinian basilica of the fourth century. David argues that some Christians of the second and early third centuries may have had places of worship that, while not monumental in scale, qualify typologically as temples and were understood as such. These sacred structures may have been used for the performance of baptisms for the dead, as suggested by Doctrine and Covenants 124. In support of this thesis, he takes as case studies the Christian places of worship at ancient Edessa and Dura Europos, based on a combination of textual sources and archaeological remains. David then briefly applies these findings to a question posed years ago in studies by Hugh Nibley and John Lundquist, “What Is a Temple?”

[Editor’s Note: Part of our book chapter reprint series, this article is reprinted here as a service to the Latter-day Saint community. Original pagination and page numbers have necessarily changed, otherwise the reprint has the same content as the original.

See David Calabro, “From temple to church: Defining sacred space in the Near East,” in The Temple: Past, Present, and Future. Proceedings of the Fifth Interpreter Foundation Matthew B. Brown Memorial Conference, 7 November 2020, ed. Stephen D. Ricks and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw (Orem, UT: The Interpreter Foundation; Salt Lake City: Eborn Books, 2021), page numbers forthcoming. Further information at https://interpreterfoundation.org/books/the-temple-past-present-and-future/.]Introduction.

Calabro, David M. “Joseph Smith and the Architecture of Genesis.” In The Temple: Ancient and Restored. Proceedings of the 2014 Temple on Mount Zion Symposium, edited by Stephen D. Ricks and Donald W. Parry. The Temple on Mount Zion Series. Volume 3. 165–181. Orem and Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2016.

During his lifetime, Joseph Smith revealed at least four versions of what I will refer to as the “Genesis account,” which consists of the creation of the world, the experiences of Adam and Eve in the garden of Eden, and the events that befell them and their near posterity following the expulsion from the garden. These four versions each differ in important ways from the biblical text in Genesis, and they also differ one from another. The versions of the Genesis account include the following:

(1) scattered references found in the Book of Mormon;

(2) the biblical account as revised in the Book of Moses;

(3) the account in the Book of Abraham; and

(4) the version presented in the temple endowment.

I will focus on the second of these, the Book of Moses, especially chapters 1-7, which were revealed to Joseph Smith from June to December 1830. Many have already pointed out temple-related themes that abound in these chapters.

I will take these discoveries a step further, arguing that Moses 1-7 is fundamentally a ritual text whose elements are adapted to the physical features of the temple of Solomon. I will then discuss how this reading of the Book of Moses might interact with modern scholarship on the biblical book of Genesis, and finally how this reading of Moses can provide insight into ritual performances both ancient and modern

Calabro, David M. “Lehi’s Dream and the Garden of Eden.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 26 (2017): 269–296.
Calabro, David M. “‘This Thing Is a Similitude’: A Typological Approach to Moses 5:1–15 and Ancient Apocryphal Literature.” Presented at the conference entitled “Tracing Ancient Threads of the Book of Moses” (September 18–19, 2020), Provo, UT: Brigham Young University 2020.
Calabro, David M. “‘This Thing Is a Similitude’: A Typological Approach to Moses 5:4–15 and Ancient Apocryphal Literature.” In Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities, Volume 1. Edited by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David R. Seely, John W. Welch and Scott Gordon, 468–504. Orem, UT; Springville, UT; Redding, CA; Tooele, UT: The Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, FAIR, and Eborn Books, 2021.
Callender, Dexter E. Adam in Myth and History: Ancient Israelite Perspectives on the Primal Human. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2000.
Carmack, Stanford A. “Book of Moses English: A Comparison of Grammatical Usage Found in Old Testament Revision 1.” Presented at the conference entitled “Tracing Ancient Threads of the Book of Moses” (April 23-24, 2021), Provo, UT: Brigham Young University 2021.
Carmack, Stanford A. “The Original English of the Book of Moses and What It Indicates about the Book’s Authorship.” In Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities, Volume 2. Edited by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David R. Seely, John W. Welch and Scott Gordon, 631–702. Orem, UT; Springville, UT; Redding, CA; Tooele, UT: The Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, FAIR, and Eborn Books, 2021.
Carr, David M. The Formation of the Hebrew Bible: A New Reconstruction. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Cassuto, Umberto. The Documentary Hypothesis and the Composition of the Pentateuch.. Translated by Israel Abrahams. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1961.
Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. 2 vols. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, 1983.
Church Educational System. Religion 327: The Pearl of Great Price Student Manual. Salt Lake City, UT: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2017.

The Pearl of Great Price is a book of scripture, and the Lord will bless you as you carefully read and ponder the sacred words found therein. This student manual provides statements and commentary to support and enhance your study of the Pearl of Great Price.

Church Educational System. Religion 327: The Pearl of Great Price Teacher Manual. Salt Lake City, UT: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2017.
Cirillo, Salvatore. “Joseph Smith, Mormonism, and Enochic Tradition.” Master’s Thesis, Durham University, 2010.
Clark, David L. Of Heaven and Earth: Reconciling Scientific Thought with LDS Theology. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 1998.
Clark, E. Douglas. “A Prologue to Genesis: Moses 1 in Light of Jewish Traditions.” BYU Studies Quarterly 45, no. 1 (2006): 129-42.
Clark, E. Douglas. “A Prologue to Genesis: Moses 1 in Light of Jewish Traditions.” BYU Studies 45, no. 1 (2006): 129–142.

Referring to ancient and long-lost scripture that Joseph Smith restored, Wilford Woodruff declared it to be part of “the rich treasures that are revealed unto us in the last days.” One such treasure is Moses chapter 1, a scriptural jewel we have hardly begun to appreciate but whose luster has become more apparent in light of various ancient texts and traditions that have emerged since Joseph Smith’s day. So striking are the parallels as to recall Joseph’s own prophecy that “the world will prove Joseph Smith a true prophet by circumstantial evidence.”

Clark, James R. “Commentary on the Pearl of Great Price.” BYU Studies Quarterly 7, no. 1 (1965): 83-84.
Cohen, H. Hirsch. The Drunkenness of Noah. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 1974.
Cohn, Norman. Noah’s Flood: The Genesis Story in Western Thought. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999.
Cox, Paul Alan. “Paley’s Stone, Creationism, Eschatology, and Conservation.” In Stewardship and the Creation: LDS Perspectives on the Environment, edited by George B. Handley, Terry B. Ball, and Stephen L. Peck, 33–42. Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 2006.
Cross, Frank Moore. Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1973.

The essays in this volume address key aspects of Israelite religious development. Cross traces the continuities between early Israelite religion and the Canaanite culture from which it emerged; explores the tension between the mythic and the historical in Israel’s religious expression; and examines the reemergence of Canaanite mythic material in the apocalypticism of early Christianity and the Dead Sea Scrolls.

Currid, John D. Ancient Egypt and the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1997.
Dahle, Ryan. “Centralizing Scriptural Resources.” Presented at the conference entitled “Tracing Ancient Threads of the Book of Moses” (September 18–19, 2020), Provo, UT: Brigham Young University 2020.
Dahle, Ryan. “Centralizing Scriptural Resources.” In Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities, Volume 1. Edited by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David R. Seely, John W. Welch and Scott Gordon, 591–96. Orem, UT; Springville, UT; Redding, CA; Tooele, UT: The Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, FAIR, and Eborn Books, 2021.
De Jonge, Marinus, and Johannes Tromp. The Life of Adam and Eve and Related Literature. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997.
deSilva, David A. The Jewish Teachers of Jesus, James and Jude: What Earliest Christianity Learned from the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012).
Dimant, Devorah. “Noah in Early Jewish Literature.” In Biblical Figures Outside the Bible, edited by Michael E. Stone and Theodore A. Bergren, 123-50. Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International, 1998.
Draper, Richard D., S. Kent Brown, and Michael D. Rhodes. The Pearl of Great Price: A Verse-by-Verse Commentary. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 2005.
Eames, Rulon D. “Enoch, LDS Sources.” In Encyclopedia of Mormonism, edited by Daniel H. Ludlow. 4 vols. 2:457–459. New York City, NY: Macmillan, 1992.
Elieson, Marc S. Principles of the Pearl of Great Price: A Topical Commentary. Lubbock, TX: Enterprise Books, 2001.

An essay published posthumously in which England wrestles with what he believed to be a disturbing trend in Mormonism away from what he saw as Joseph Smith’s and Brigham Young’s doctrine of God as a personal being engaged with us in a tragic universe not of his own making and toward a more absolutistic God similar to the teachings about deity held by Evangelical Christianity.

Embry, Brad. “The ‘Naked Narrative’ from Noah to Leviticus: Reassessing Voyeurism in the Account of Noah’s Nakedness in Genesis 9:22-24.” Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 35, no. 4 (2011): 417-33.
England, Eugene. “The Weeping God of Mormonism.” Dialogue 35, no. 1 (2002): 63–80.

An essay published posthumously in which England wrestles with what he believed to be a disturbing trend in Mormonism away from what he saw as Joseph Smith’s and Brigham Young’s doctrine of God as a personal being engaged withus in a tragic universe not of his own making and toward a more absolutistic God similar to the teachings about deity held by Evangelical Christianity.

Evans, Craig A., Joel N. Lohr, and David L. Petersen, eds. The Book of Genesis: Composition, Reception, and Interpretation. Supplements to Vetus Testamentum, Formation and interpretation of Old Testament Literature 152, ed. Christl M. Maier, Craig A. Evans and Peter W. Flint. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2012.
Evenson, William E., and Duane E. Jeffery, eds. Mormonism and Evolution: The Authoritative LDS Statements. Draper, UT: Greg Kofford Books, 2005.
Eyring, Henry. The Faith of a Scientist. Salt Lake City, UT: Bookcraft, 1967.
Eyring, Henry. Reflections of a Scientist. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 1983.
Faulconer, James E. “Scripture as Incarnation.” In Historicity and the Latter-day Saint Scriptures, edited by Paul Y. Hoskisson, 17–61. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Religious Studies Center, 2001. Reprint, in Faulconer, J. E. Faith, Philosophy, Scripture. Provo, UT: Neal A. Maxwell Institute, Brigham Young University, 2010, 151–202.

Today the modernist view of history in which texts only represent events is so predominant that most Latter-day Saints automatically apply it to the question of scriptural historicity. Unfortunately, historical scholarship rarely lines up with our understanding of scripture as well as we would like. Problems arise when we use modernist tools to examine scripture written by premoderns, who considered their writing not as mere representation but as incarnation—an embodiment of the symbolic ordering of the world. The premodernist reading of the scriptures more accurately reflects Latter-day Saint beliefs: whereas modernism would use reason to understand history (and thus the Divine in history, i.e., scripture), premodernism uses divinely revealed scripture as well as ritual, ritual objects, and ritual language to give order to history. Instead of examining scripture as just another element of history, premoderns consider scripture to be the defining element in history.

The historicity of scripture is important to most Christians and especially to Latter-day Saints. [1] Christians disagree among themselves about how to understand scriptural history, but few deny that, in some important sense, Christian scripture is historical. However, given the challenges to scriptural history, challenges that are especially strong for Latter-day Saints who take the Book of Mormon to be historical, what are we to make of the claim that scriptures are history? Given those challenges, is it possible to understand scripture as literal history? The answer to that question—positive, I will argue—lies in answering the question of what we mean by history.

Faulring, Scott H., and Kent P. Jackson, eds. Joseph Smith’s Translation of the Bible Electronic Library. CD-ROM. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Press, 2011.
Faulring, Scott H., Kent P. Jackson, and Robert J. Matthews, eds. Joseph Smith’s New Translation of the Bible: Original Manuscripts. Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 2004.

The latter-day restoration of the gospel included the restoration of much significant truth to the Bible. It brought about the restoration of biblical history that had been lost and the restoration of biblical texts that had been changed or omitted or were in need of clarification. More important, it included the restoration of biblical doctrine that had been either removed, distorted, or simply misinterpreted by a world that did not enjoy the fulness of the gospel.

Shortly after the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saint was organized, the Prophet Joseph Smith was instructed by the Lord to undertake a careful reading of the Bible to revise and make corrections in accordance with the inspiration that he would receive. The result was a work of profound significance for the Church that included the revelation of many important truths and the restoration of many of the “precious things” that the Book of Mormon prophet Nephi had foretold would be taken from the Bible (1 Ne. 13:23–29). In June 1830 the first revealed addition to the Bible was set to writing. Over the next three years, the Prophet made changes, additions, and corrections as were given him by divine inspiration while he filled his calling to provide a more correct translation for the Church. Collectively, these are called the Joseph Smith Translation (JST), a name first applied in the 1970s, or the New Translation, as Joseph Smith and others in his day referred to it.

Faulring, Scott H., Kent P. Jackson, and Robert J. Matthews, eds. “New Testament Revision 1.” The Joseph Smith Papers.
Faulring, Scott H., Kent P. Jackson, and Robert J. Matthews, eds. “New Testament Revision 2.” The Joseph Smith Papers.
Faulring, Scott H., Kent P. Jackson, and Robert J. Matthews, eds. “Old Testament Revision 1.” The Joseph Smith Papers.
Faulring, Scott H., Kent P. Jackson, and Robert J. Matthews, eds. “Old Testament Revision 2.” The Joseph Smith Papers.
Feldman, Louis H., James L. Kugel, and Lawrence H. Schiffman, eds. Outside the Bible: Ancient Jewish Writings Related to Scripture. 3 vols. Philadelphia, PA: The Jewish Publication Society, 2013.
Finkel, Irving L. The Ark Before Noah: Decoding the Story of the Flood. London, England: Hodder & Stoughton, 2014.
Flake, Kathleen. “Translating Time: The Nature and Function of Joseph Smith’s Narrative Canon.” Journal of Religion 87, no. 4 (October 2007): 497–527.
Fletcher-Louis, Crispin H. T. All the Glory of Adam: Liturgical Anthropology in the Dead Sea Scrolls. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2002.
Frederick, Nicholas J. The Bible, Mormon Scripture, and the Rhetoric of Allusivity. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2016.
Frederick, Nicholas J. “Intertextuality in the Book of Mormon.” In LDS Perspectives Podcast. Interview by Laura Harris Hales, Episode 92.

In this episode of the LDS Perspectives Podcast, Laura Harris Hales interviews scholar Nicholas (Nick) J. Frederick about New Testament intertextuality in the Book of Mormon.

Freedman, David Noel. The Nine Commandments. Des Moines, IA: Anchor Bible, 2000.
Freedman, David Noel. “The Nine Commandments.” Presented at the Proceedings of the 36th Annual Convention of the Association of Jewish Libraries, La Jolla, CA, June 24-27, 2001.
Frölich, Ida. “Giants and Demons.” In Ancient Tales of Giants from Qumran and Turfan: Contexts, Traditions, and Influences, edited by Matthew Goff, Loren T. Stuckenbruck and Enrico Morano. Wissenschlaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 360, ed. Jörg Frey, 97–114. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 2016.
Gardner, Brant A. “Silk or Sow’s Ear? The Apologetic use of the If>And Construction.” The Interpreter Foundation website. October 13, 2013.
Gardner, Iain, ed. The Kephalaia of the Teacher: The Edited Coptic Manichaean Texts in Translation with Commentary. Nag Hammadi and Manichaean Studies 37, ed. James M. Robinson and H. J. Klimkeit. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1995.
Ginzberg, Louis, ed. The Legends of the Jews. 7 vols. Translated by Henrietta Szold and Paul Radin. Philadelphia, PA: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1909-1938. Reprint, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.
Givens, Terryl L. “The Book of Moses as a Pre–Augustinian Text: A New Look at the Pelagian Crisis.” In Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities, Volume 1. Edited by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David R. Seely, John W. Welch and Scott Gordon, 293–314. Orem, UT; Springville, UT; Redding, CA; Tooele, UT: The Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, FAIR, and Eborn Books, 2021.
Givens, Terryl L. “Mortality Reconsidered: The Book of Moses as a Pre-Augustinian Text.” Presented at the conference entitled “Tracing Ancient Threads of the Book of Moses” (September 18–19, 2020), Provo, UT: Brigham Young University 2020.
Givens, Terryl L., and Brian M. Hauglid. The Pearl of Greatest Price: Mormonism’s Most Controversial Scripture. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2019.
Givens, Terryl L., and Fiona Givens. The God Who Weeps: How Mormonism Makes Sense of Life. Salt Lake City, UT: Ensign Peak, 2012.
Goff, Matthew, Loren T. Stuckenbruck, and Enrico Morano, eds. Ancient Tales of Giants from Qumran and Turfan: Contexts, Traditions, and Influences. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 2016.
Goldenberg, David M. “What did Ham Do to Noah?” In ‘The Words of a Wise Man’s Mouth Are Gracious’ (Qoh. 10:12), edited by Mauro Perani, 257-65. Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter, 2005.
Goodman, Michael A. “The Creation: An Introduction to Our Relationship to God.” Religious Educator 8, no. 3 (2007): 15–29.
Greenspahn, Frederick E. “Abstract of Y. Koler ‘Noah’” Old Testament Abstracts 6, no. 483 (1983): 148.
Griffin, Tyler J., and Donald B. Anderson. “The Great Plan of Happiness: A Christ-Centered Visual Approach.” Religious Educator 18, no. 1 (2017): 12–31.

The greatest concept we can study or teach is the plan of redemption—sometimes called the plan of salvation or the plan of happiness. The doctrines of the plan of redemption have more power to bring men to God than any other truth or concept. Many members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints quickly recognize the following diagram.

Griggs, C. Wilfred, ed. Apocryphal Writings and the Latter-day Saints. Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1986.

The Lord has told us that many things in the Apocrypha are true and many false. The fascination that apocryphal writings generally hold for Latter-day Saints was recognized in a 1983 BYU symposium on this topic addressed by fifteen scholars representing a wide range of expertise. Those addresses are collected in this book.

Grossfeld, Bernard, and Lawrence H. Schiffman, eds. Targum Neofiti 1: An Exegetical Commentary to Genesis including Full Rabbinic Parallels. Brooklyn, NY: Sepher-Hermon Press, 2000.
Grossfeld, Bernard, ed. The Targum Onqelos to Genesis: Translated with a Critical Introduction, Apparatus, and Notes. Aramaic Bible 6. Edinburgh, Scotland: T & T Clark, 1988.
Gulácsi, Zsuzsanna. Mani’s Pictures: The Didactic Images of the Manichaeans from Sasanian Mesopotamia to Uygur Central Asia and Tang-Ming China. Nag Hammadi and Manichaean Studies 90. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2015.
Hafen, Bruce C., and Marie K. Hafen. “Adam, Eve, the Book of Moses, and the Temple: The Story of Receiving Christ’s Atonement.” Presented at the conference entitled “Tracing Ancient Threads of the Book of Moses” (September 18–19, 2020), Provo, UT: Brigham Young University 2020.
Hafen, Bruce C., and Marie K. Hafen. “Adam, Eve, the Book of Moses, and the Temple: The Story of Receiving Christ’s Atonement.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 46 (2021): 157-200.

Abstract: The authors begin by highlighting the importance of Book of Moses research that has discovered plausible findings for its historicity, rendering it at least reasonable to give the benefit of the doubt to sacred premises — even if, ultimately, the choice of premises is just that, a choice. Emphasizing the relevance of the Book of Moses to the temple, they note that the Book of Moses is not only an ancient temple text, but also the ideal scriptural context for a modern temple preparation course. Going further, the authors address an important question raised by some who have asked: “Since Christ is at the center of the gospel, why doesn’t the temple endowment teach the story of the life of Christ? What’s all this about Adam and Eve?” The answer given in detail in the paper is as follows: “The story of the life of Christ is the story of giving the Atonement. And the story of Adam and Eve is the story of receiving the Atonement. Their story is our story, too.”

[Editor’s Note: Part of our book chapter reprint series, this article is reprinted here as a service to the Latter-day Saint community. Original pagination and page numbers have necessarily changed, otherwise the reprint has the same content as the original.

See Bruce C. Hafen and Marie K. Hafen, “Adam, Eve, the Book of Moses, and the Temple: The Story of Receiving Christ’s Atonement,” in Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities, edited by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David R. Seely, John W. Welch and Scott Gordon (Orem, UT: The Interpreter Foundation; Springville, UT: Book of Mormon Central; Redding, CA: FAIR; Tooele, UT: Eborn Books, 2021), page numbers forthcoming. Further information at https://interpreterfoundation.org/books/ancient-threads-in-the-book-of-moses/.]Historicity and Plausibility of the Book of Moses.

Hafen, Bruce C., and Marie K. Hafen. “Adam, Eve, the Book of Moses, and the Temple: The Story of Receiving Christ’s Atonement.” In Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities, Volume 1. Edited by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David R. Seely, John W. Welch and Scott Gordon, 1–50. Orem, UT; Springville, UT; Redding, CA; Tooele, UT: The Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, FAIR, and Eborn Books, 2021.
Hallo, William W., and K. Lawson Younger, eds. The Context of Scripture. 3 vols. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers, 1996–2002.
Halverson, Taylor. “Was Adam a Monotheist? A Reflection on Why We Call Abraham Father and Not Adam.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 31 (2019): 245-258.

Abstract: The three great monotheistic religious traditions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) all claim Abraham as father and prototypical monotheist. Though Adam is the putative first father in all of these traditions, he is seldom remembered in Judeo-Christian scriptural, apocryphal, or pseudepigraphic texts as an exemplary monotheist. This essay briefly reviews why Abraham retains the lofty title “Father of Monotheism” while exploring how Latter-day restoration scripture adds to and challenges this ancient tradition vis-à-vis enhanced understanding of Adam’s covenantal and monotheistic fidelity to God.

Hamblin, William J. “Joseph or Jung?” In Hugh Nibley Observed, edited by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, Shirley S. Ricks, and Stephen T. Whitlock. Orem, UT, and Salt Lake City: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2021.

This chapter is adapted from a review of Douglas F. Salmon, “Parallelomania and the Study of Latter-day Scripture: Confirmation, Coincidence, or the Collective Unconscious,“ Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 33, no. 2 (2000): 129–56. The article was originally published as William J. Hamblin and Gordon C. Thomasson, “Joseph or Jung? A Response to Douglas Salmon,“ FARMS Review of Books 13, no. 2 (2001): 87–107.

A review of an article written by Douglas F. Salmon.

Hamblin, William J., and David Rolph Seely, eds. Temple Insights: Proceedings of the Interpreter Matthew B. Brown Memorial Conference ‘The Temple on Mount Zion,’ 22 September 2012. Temple on Mount Zion Series 2. Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2014.
Hardy, Grant R. “Ancient History and Modern Commandments: The Book of Mormon in Comparison with Joseph Smith’s Other Revelations.” In Producing Ancient Scripture: Joseph Smith’s Translation Projects and the Making of Mormon Christianity, edited by Mark Ashurst-McGee, Michael Hubbard MacKay and Brian M. Hauglid, 205–227. Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press, 2020.

Harper, Steven C. “Endowed with Power.” ReligiousEducator 5, no. 2 (2004): 83–99.
Harrell, Charles R. “The Development of the Doctrine of Preexistence, 1830-1844.” BYU Studies Quarterly 28, no. 2 (1988): 75-96.

Perhaps no doctrine has had greater impact on Latter-day Saint theology than the doctrine of preexistence, or the belief in the existence of the human spirit before its mortal birth. Fundamental concepts such as the nature of man as an eternal being, his singular relationship as the offspring of Deity and concomitant brotherhood with all mankind, the talents and privileges with which he is born into the world, and his potential godhood are all inextricably connected to the doctrine of preexistence. This distinctive LDS doctrine was not immediately comprehended by the early Saints in the more fully developed form in which it is understood today.

Like many of the other teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, it was revealed line upon line and adapted to the Saints’ understanding. Moreover, there was a natural tendency to view initial teachings on preexistence in light of previously held beliefs until greater clarity was given to the doctrine. This study traces the early development of the doctrine by examining chronologically the revelations and recorded sermons and writings on preexistence by the Prophet Joseph Smith in light of contemporary commentary by his associates. Seeing how early Saints perceived preexistence enhances our own understanding of the doctrine and leads to a greater appreciation of our theological heritage.

Harris, James R. “Changes in the Book of Moses and Their Implications upon a Concept of Revelation.” BYU Studies Quarterly 8, no. 4 (1968): 361-382.

This article will join the procession of articles dealing with the problem of scriptural change and its impact upon LDS theology. There will be concern to explain the nature of the material undergoing change, the historical, situations in which these changes occurred, and the impact of these facts upon a concept of revelation. As it is in the book of Moses that the most important changes have occurred, an explanation of how and why these changes were made in this text should satisfy the reader.

Harris, James R. “Changes in the Book of Moses and Their Implications upon a Concept of Revelation.” BYU Studies Quarterly 8, no. 4 (1968): 361-82.

This article will join the procession of articles dealing with the problem of scriptural change and its impact upon LDS theology. There will be concern to explain the nature of the material undergoing change, the historical, situations in which these changes occurred, and the impact of these facts upon a concept of revelation. As it is in the book of Moses that the most important changes have occurred, an explanation of how and why these changes were made in this text should satisfy the reader.

Hauglid, Brian M., and Carl Griffin, eds. Latter-day Saint Scholarship on the Dead Sea Scrolls. Special issue of Studies in the Bible and Antiquity (Volume 2). Provo, UT: Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship, 2010.
Hauglid, Brian M., and Ray L. Huntington. “A Community of Christ Perspective on the JST Research of Robert J. Matthews: An Interview with Ronald E. Romig.” The Religious Educator: Perspectives on the Restored Gospel 5, no. 2 (2004): 49–55.
Head, Ronan James. “The Investiture Panel at Mari and Rituals of Divine Kingship in the Ancient near East.” Studies in the Bible and Antiquity 4 (2012): 1–42.

This article explores the ancient Near Eastern ritu-als that endowed kings with this power, specifically the rites suggested by the Investiture Panel at the palace of Mari, with specific focus on the motifs of creation, sacred garden, and divine kingship. Because contemporary evidence at Mari relating to an interpretation of the panel and the functions of various rooms of the palace is limited, it will be necessary to rely in part on a careful comparative analysis of religious texts, images, and architecture throughout the ancient Near East, including the Old Testament. Comparative analysis not only has the benefit of increasing our understanding of ancient Mesopotamian religion but also can enrich our understanding of the Bible.

Head, Ronan James. “Mormonism’s Satan and the Tree of Life.” Element: A Journal of Mormon Philosophy and Theology 4, no. 2 (2010): 1-54.

Longer version of an invited presentation originally given at the 2009 Conference of the European Mormon Studies Association, Turin, Italy, July 30-31, 2009

Hedges, Andrew H. “‘Compassion upon the Earth’: Man, Prophets, and Nature.” In Stewardship and the Creation: LDS Perspectives on the Environment, edited by George B. Handley, Terry B. Ball, and Stephen L. Peck, 81–88. Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 2006.
Helyer, Larry R. Exploring Jewish Literature of the Second Temple Period: A Guide for New Testament Students. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2002.
Hendel, Ronald S. “Genesis 1-11 and Its Mesopotamian Problem.” In Cultural Borrowings and Ethnic Appropriations in Antiquity, edited by Erich S. Gruen, 23-36. Stuttgart, Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2005.
Hendel, Ronald S. “The Nephilim Were on the Earth: Genesis 6:1-4 and its Ancient Near Eastern Context.” In The Fall of the Angels, edited by C. Auffarth and Loren T. Stuckenbruck, 11-34. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2004.
Hendel, Ronald S. “The Shape of Utnapishtim’s Ark.” Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 107, no. 1 (1995): 128-29.
Hendel, Ronald S. “Tangled Plots in Genesis.” In Fortunate the Eyes that See: Essays in Honor of David Noel Freedman, edited by Astrid B. Beck, Andrew H. Bartelt, Paul R. Raabe and Chris A. Franke, 35-51. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1995.
Hendel, Ronald S. The Text of Genesis 1–11: Textual Studies and Critical Edition. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Henning, W. B. “The Book of the Giants.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 11, no. 1 (1943): 52–74.
Hess, Richard S. Studies in the Personal Names of Genesis 1–11. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2009.
Hess, Wilford M., Raymond T. Matheny, and Donlu D. Thayer. Science and Religion: Toward a More Useful Dialogue. 2 vols. Geneva, IL: Paladin House, 1979.
Himmelfarb, Martha. Ascent to Heaven in Jewish and Christian Apocalypses. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Holland, David F. Sacred Borders: Continuing Revelation and Canonical Restraint in Early America. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Holland, Jeffrey R. “My Words … Never Cease.” Ensign 38, no. 5, May 2008, 91–94.

We invite all to inquire into the wonder of what God has said since biblical times and is saying even now.

Holyoak, Trevor. “Book Review: The Pearl of Greatest Price: Mormonism’s Most Controversial Scripture.” On FAIR, https://www.fairlatterdaysaints.org. December 19, 2019.
Hopkin, Shon D. “Women, Eve, and the Mosaic Covenant: A Latter-day Saint Theological Reading.” In Seek Ye Words of Wisdom: Studies of the Book of Mormon, Bible, and Temple in Honor of Stephen D. Ricks, edited by Donald W. Parry, Gaye Strathearn and Shon D. Hopkin. Orem and Provo, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Brigham Young University Religious Education, 2020, 171–98.
Horton, George A., Jr. “Insights into the Book of Genesis.” In The Joseph Smith Translation: The Restoration of Plain and Precious Things, edited by Monte S. Nyman and Robert L. Millet, 51–88. Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 1985.
Hoskisson, Paul Y. “The Need for Historicity: Why Banishing God from History Removes Historical Obligation.” In Historicity and the Latter-day Saint Scriptures, edited by Paul Y. Hoskisson, 99–121. Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 2001.

Key historical events in the scriptures require historicity to give substance to our faith. Since the Enlightenment, however, some scholars have proclaimed that the scriptures lack historicity. In the face of these doubts, some have argued that historicity is not necessary for belief. Latter-day Saints should be wary of the misleading arguments of critics and of simplistic solutions to those arguments.

Hoskisson, Paul Y., ed. Historicity and the Latter-day Saint Scriptures. Religious Studies Monograph Series 18. Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 2001.

Since the beginnings of the Church, those who participated in the Restoration were commanded to keep a history. Latter-day Saints have an abiding interest in the history of God’s dealings with this earth. Similarly, we reverence the history in scripture because our faith is grounded in events that have taken place in the time and space of this earth. Historicity is the study of the authenticity of recorded past events. This significant compilation addresses the issue of historicity as it relates to the scriptures that Latter-day Saints accept as the word of God. With articles from Elder Dallin H. Oaks, Robert J. Matthews, Robert L. Millet, and more, this book provides an inspiring and more complete picture of the necessity for the historical nature of the Latter-day Saint canon.

Howard, Richard P. Restoration Scriptures. 2nd ed. Independence, MO: Herald House, 1995.
Hunsaker, O. Glade. “Pearl of Great Price, Literature.” In Encyclopedia of Mormonism, edited by Daniel H. Ludlow. 4 vols. 3:1072. New York, NY: Macmillan, 1992.
Huntington, Ray L., and Brian M. Hauglid. “Robert J. Matthews and His Work with the Joseph Smith Translation.” The Religious Educator: Perspectives on the Restored Gospel 5, no. 2 (2004): 23–47.

In 1979, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints published its edition of the King James Version of the Bible. The Scriptures Publication Committee decided to include portions of the Joseph Smith Translation in the new edition. For the first time, Latter-day Saints had access to Joseph’s inspired work in their own personal scriptures. Many Latter-day Saints may be unaware that the efforts to include the JST material in the new edition of the Bible were pioneered by Robert J. Matthews, former dean of Religious Education at Brigham Young University. Beginning in 1953, Brother Matthews began a letter-writing campaign to the RLDS Church (now called the Community of Christ), requesting permission to study the original JST manuscripts. Through his sustained efforts, the RLDS Church gave Brother Matthews permission to examine the manuscripts.

Interpreter Foundation. “In God’s Image and Likeness 2 — Preface and Introduction.” The Interpreter Foundation website. March 2, 2020.
Interpreter Foundation. “Jackson Article Preview — Did Joseph Smith Use Adam Clarke?” The Interpreter Foundation website. August 18, 2020.
Interpreter Foundation. “Jeffrey Bradshaw on ‘The Ark and the Tent: Temple Symbolism in the Story of Noah’” The Interpreter Foundation website. October 27, 2012.
Interpreter Foundation. “The Theory of Evolution is Compatible with Both Belief and Unbelief in a Supreme Being.” The Interpreter Foundation website. January 27, 2020.
Interpreter Foundation. “Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses 2020 Conference.” 2020 Book of Moses Conference, September 18-19, 2020. The Interpreter Foundation, Brigham Young University Department of Ancient Scripture, Book of Mormon Central, and FAIR. Orem, Utah.
Interpreter Foundation. “Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses 2021 Conference.” 2021 Book of Moses Conference, April 23-24, 2021. The Interpreter Foundation, Brigham Young University Department of Ancient Scripture, Book of Mormon Central, and FAIR. Orem, Utah.
Jackson, Kent P. “An Age of Contrasts: From Adam to Abraham.” Ensign 26, no. 2, February 1986, 28–30.
Jackson, Kent P. “An Appreciation.” In The Book of Moses and the Joseph Smith Translation Manuscripts (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2005), 143–144.
Jackson, Kent P. “Behold I.” BYU Studies 44, no. 2 (2005): 169–75.

On two occasions while he worked on his New Translation of Genesis in 1830, the Prophet Joseph Smith dictated to his scribe Oliver Cowdery a word combination that in English is awkward and umgrammatical, though in the Hebrew it is not: “Behold I.” The first occurrence reads, “Behold I am the Lord God Almighty.” The second reads, “Behold I send me.” Both passages are in the Book of Moses in the Pearl of Great Price, but “Behold I” is not found in either of those passages today because, after the time of Joseph Smith, each was edited out of the text . .

Jackson, Kent P. “Behold I.” BYU Studies Quarterly 44, no. 2 (2005): 169-75.
Jackson, Kent P. “‘Book of Moses,’ 71–73; ‘Book of Moses Manuscripts,’ 78; ‘Cain,’ 84; ‘Canaan, People Of,’ 85; ‘Curse, Cursed, Cursing,’ 99–100; ‘Inspired Version,’ 166; ‘Intelligences,’ 167; ‘Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible,’ 187–188; ‘Like Unto God/like Unto the Son of Man,’ 199; ’Meridian of Time,’ 207; ‘One Flesh,’ 227; ‘Patriarchs, Ages Of,’ 233; ‘Pearl of Great Price: An Overview and Introduction,’ 1–5; ‘Pearl of Great Price, Historical Development Of,’ 234–135; ‘Perdition,’ 237; ‘Satan,’ 258–259.” In Pearl of Great Price Reference Companion, edited by Dennis L. Largey. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 2017.
Jackson, Kent P. The Book of Moses and the Joseph Smith Translation Manuscripts. Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2005.

This book is a study of the text of Selections from the Book of Moses, an excerpt of Genesis from the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible. Commonly called the Book of Moses, it is the first section in the Pearl of Great Price, one of the standard works of scripture of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

We now have access to the revealed text itself, which we did not have before, and we can examine the words as they were recorded when they first came from the inspired lips of the Prophet. We are in a new day, a day of closer access to one of the great fruits of the Restoration—an important branch of Joseph Smith’s calling, as he designated his inspired work on the Bible. With our ability now to examine the original documents closely, we can express our thanks to a loving God who has provided that “righteousness and truth.”

Jackson, Kent P. The Book of Moses and the Joseph Smith Translation Manuscripts. Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 2005.

This book is a study of the text of Selections from the Book of Moses, an excerpt of Genesis from the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible. Commonly called the Book of Moses, it is the first section in the Pearl of Great Price, one of the standard works of scripture of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

Jackson, Kent P. “The Coming Forth of the King James Bible.” In The King James Bible and the Restoration, edited by Kent P. Jackson, 43–60. Provo, UT and Salt Lake City, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center and Deseret Book and , 2011.
Jackson, Kent P. “The Cooperstown Bible.” New York History 95, no. 2 (Spring 2014): 243–270.
Jackson, Kent P. “Historical Text.” In The Book of Moses and the Joseph Smith Translation Manuscripts (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2005), 53–56.

The following is a transcription of the Book of Moses, Genesis 1:1–6:13, from Old Testament Manuscript 2 (OT2), Joseph Smith’s final draft of his New Translation of Genesis. It is found on pages 1–27 of that manuscript. The Prophet first dictated this part of Genesis between June 1830 and February 1831. Oliver Cowdery, John Whitmer, Emma Smith, and Sidney Rigdon assisted him as scribes. In the original dictated manuscript, Old Testament Manuscript 1 (OT1), the Book of Moses material is found on pages 1–21. The present manuscript (OT2) is a copy of the original, made by John Whitmer in March 1831. With very few exceptions, OT2 was the document on which Joseph Smith continued to refine the translation. He added to it numerous insertions and corrections, dictating them primarily to his scribe Sidney Rigdon. The present transcription preserves carefully the words of the manuscript, including words inserted after the original writing. Unless otherwise noted, the handwriting is that of John Whitmer.

Jackson, Kent P. “History of the Book of Moses.” In The Book of Moses and the Joseph Smith Translation Manuscripts (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2005), 1–52.

Selections from the Book of Moses in the Pearl of Great Price is the Joseph Smith Translation (JST) of Genesis 1:1–6:13, the beginning pages of the New Translation. The material in it was revealed between June 1830 and February 1831. In some ways, the Book of Moses can be considered the most significant part of the JST, because it has contributed more distinctive Latter-day Saint doctrine than any other part of that work. It has stood since the beginning of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints as one of the doctrinal cornerstones of the Restoration and as an enduring testimony to the divinely inspired work of Joseph Smith.

Jackson, Kent P. “How We Got the Book of Moses.” In By Study and by Faith: Selections from the Religious Educator, ed. Richard Neitzel Holzapfel and Kent P. Jackson (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2009).
Jackson, Kent P. “How We Got the Book of Moses.” Religious Educator 3, no. 1 (2002): 127–137.

The book of Moses is an extract from Joseph Smith’s New Translation of the Bible. It was revealed to the Prophet in 1830 and in early 1831, not long after the organization of the Church. This article is a brief introduction to the origin of the book of Moses and the Bible translation from which it derives.

Jackson, Kent P. “How We Got the Joseph Smith Translation, the Book of Moses, and Joseph Smith—Matthew.” Presented at the conference entitled “Tracing Ancient Threads of the Book of Moses” (April 23-24, 2021), Provo, UT: Brigham Young University 2021.
Jackson, Kent P. “How We Got the Joseph Smith Translation, the Book of Moses, and Joseph Smith—Matthew.” In Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities, Volume 1. Edited by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David R. Seely, John W. Welch and Scott Gordon, 75–96. Orem, UT; Springville, UT; Redding, CA; Tooele, UT: The Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, FAIR, and Eborn Books, 2021.
Jackson, Kent P. “‘If And’: A Hebrew Construction in the Book of Moses.” in Bountiful Harvest: Essays in Honor of S. Kent Brown, edited by Andrew C. Skinner, D. Morgan Davis, and Carl Griffin, 205–210. Provo, UT: Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship, 2012.
Jackson, Kent P. “Inspired Additions to Genesis.” In Studies in Scripture, Vol. 3: The Old Testament— Genesis to 2 Samuel, edited by Kent P. Jackson and Robert L. Millet, 35–46. Salt Lake City, UT: Randall Book, 1985.
Jackson, Kent P. “Joseph Smith Translating Genesis.” BYU Studies Quarterly 56, no. 4 (2017): 7–28.
Jackson, Kent P. “Joseph Smith’s Cooperstown Bible: The Historical Context of the Bible Used in the Joseph Smith Translation.” BYU Studies 40, no. 1 (2001): 41–70.

In 1828, the H. and E. Phinney Company in Cooperstown, New York, published a quarto-size edition of the King James Bible. This is the version that Joseph Smith, founder of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, used in his work when he created a new translation of the Bible. Here the author examines Joseph Smith’€™s marked-up copy of the Phinney Bible as an artifact important to Mormonism’€”some of Smith’€™s corrections and additions appear in footnotes of the Bible that Mormons use today. The author notes that the Phinney Bible’s updated language is more modern than the version of the Bible Latter-day Saints officially use (the King James), and the modernization may or may not have influenced Joseph Smith’€™s word choice in creating his translation. The author also gives biographical information on the Phinneys, describes how their Bible may have made its way into Joseph Smith’€™s hands, briefly traces the history of the English Bible in America, and describes the printing process employed by the Phinneys.

Jackson, Kent P. “Joseph Smith’s New Translation of the Bible, 1830.” In Joseph Smith, the Prophet and Seer, edited by Richard Neitzel Holzapfel and Kent P. Jackson, 51–76. Provo and Salt Lake City, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center and Deseret Book, 2010.
Jackson, Kent P. “Joseph Smith’s Translation of the New Testament.” In New Testament History, Culture, and Society, edited by Lincoln H. Blumell, 707–718. Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2019.
Jackson, Kent P. “The King James Bible and the Joseph Smith Translation.” In The King James Bible and the Restoration, edited by Kent P. Jackson, 197–211. Provo, UT and Salt Lake City, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center and Deseret Book, 2011.
Jackson, Kent P. “Moses 1.” In The Book of Moses and the Joseph Smith Translation Manuscripts (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2005), 57-66.
Jackson, Kent P. “Moses 1-8.” In The Book of Moses and the Joseph Smith Translation Manuscripts (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2005), 143–144.
Jackson, Kent P. “Moses 2.” In The Book of Moses and the Joseph Smith Translation Manuscripts (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2005), 67–71.
Jackson, Kent P. “Moses 3.” In The Book of Moses and the Joseph Smith Translation Manuscripts (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2005), 73–77.
Jackson, Kent P. “Moses 4.” In The Book of Moses and the Joseph Smith Translation Manuscripts (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2005), 79–85.
Jackson, Kent P. “Moses 5.” In The Book of Moses and the Joseph Smith Translation Manuscripts (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2005), 87–99.
Jackson, Kent P. “Moses 6.” In The Book of Moses and the Joseph Smith Translation Manuscripts (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2005), 101–115.
Jackson, Kent P. “Moses 7.” In The Book of Moses and the Joseph Smith Translation Manuscripts (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2005), 117–136.
Jackson, Kent P. “Moses 8.” In The Book of Moses and the Joseph Smith Translation Manuscripts (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2005), 137–142.
Jackson, Kent P. “New Discoveries in the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible.” In By Study and by Faith: Selections from the Religious Educator, revised edition, edited by Richard Neitzel Holzapfel and Kent P. Jackson, 169–181. Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 2009.

In November 2004 the Religious Studies Center at Brigham Young University published a facsimile transcription of all the original manuscripts of the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible. [1] I was privileged to be one of the editors of the project and worked with those manuscripts in preparing the publication. A facsimile transcription seeks to reproduce in print—as much as is humanly and typographically possible—the writing found on a handwritten document. Thus the transcription includes the writers’ original spelling, grammar, punctuation, line endings, omissions, errors, insertions, and deletions. The purpose of the publication is to provide scholars and lay readers with an accurate reproduction of the text as found on Joseph Smith’s original manuscripts. Its importance is in the fact that those documents had never been made public before but were stored in archives that were only available for study to a limited number of researchers.

Jackson, Kent P. “Preface.” In The Book of Moses and the Joseph Smith Translation Manuscripts (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2005), vii–x.
Jackson, Kent P. The Restored Gospel and the Book of Genesis. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 2001.
Jackson, Kent P. “Some Notes on Joseph Smith and Adam Clarke.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 40 (2020): 15-60.

Abstract: Authors of two recent articles believe they have found evidence that Joseph Smith, in preparing his revision of the Bible, drew ideas from a contemporary Bible commentary by British scholar Adam Clarke. The evidence, however, does not bear out this claim. I believe that none of the examples they provide can be traced to Clarke’s commentary, and almost all of them can be explained easily by other means. The authors do not look at their examples within the broader context of the revisions Joseph Smith made to the Bible, and thus they misinterpret them. Some of the revisions they attribute to Clarke are ones that Joseph Smith had made repeatedly before he arrived at the passages where they believe he got ideas from Clarke. In addition, there is a mountain of material in Clarke that is not reflected in the Joseph Smith Translation, and there is a mountain of material in the Joseph Smith Translation that cannot be explained by reference to Clarke. The few overlaps that do exist are vague, superficial, and coincidental.

Jackson, Kent P. “Ten Questions with Kent P. Jackson [about the Joseph Smith Translation].” In From the Desk of Kurt Manwaring. November 23, 2020.
Jackson, Kent P. “The Visions of Moses and Joseph Smith’s Bible Translation.” In “To Seek the Law of the Lord”: Essays in Honor of John W. Welch, edited by Paul Y. Hoskisson and Daniel C. Peterson, 161–169. Orem, UT: Interpreter Foundation, 2017.
Jackson, Kent P. “The Visions of Moses and Joseph Smith’s Bible Translation.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 40 (2020): 89-98.

Abstract: This contribution focuses on the earliest and one of the most significant chapters of the Book of Moses: Moses 1, sometimes called the “Visions of Moses.” Kent Jackson summarizes the sources available relating to the production of this chapter, illuminating obscure corners of its often misunderstood background with his extensive knowledge of the history, manuscripts, and significance of the Joseph Smith Translation. [Editor’s Note: Part of our book chapter reprint series, this article is reprinted here as a service to the LDS community. Original pagination and page numbers have necessarily changed, otherwise the reprint has the same content as the original.See Kent P. Jackson, “The Visions of Moses and Joseph Smith’s Bible Translation,” in “To Seek the Law of the Lord”: Essays in Honor of John W. Welch, ed. Paul Y. Hoskisson and Daniel C. Peterson (Orem, UT: The Interpreter Foundation, 2017), 161–70. Further information at https://interpreterfoundation.org/books/to-seek-the-law-of-the-lord-essays-in-honor-of-john-w-welch-2/.].

Jackson, Kent P., and Charles Swift. “The Ages of the Patriarchs in the Joseph Smith Translation.” In A Witness for the Restoration: Essays in Honor of Robert J. Matthews, edited by Kent P. Jackson and Andrew C. Skinner, 1–11. Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 2007.
Jackson, Kent P., and Peter M. Jasinski. “The Process of Inspired Translation: Two Passages Translated Twice in the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible.” BYU Studies 42, no. 2 (2003): 35–64.

Since 1996, researchers from Brigham Young University—with the assistance of new photographs, scanned images, and much hands-on examination of the documents—have been engaged in a careful study of the text written on the original manuscripts of the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible. The work has yielded the publication of a large facsimile transcription of all the original manuscript pages and much new information about how Joseph Smith prepared the text. Among the many new discoveries resulting from this research is an enhanced understanding of the sequence and chronology of the Prophet’s work.

Jackson, Kent P., and Scott H. Faulring. “Old Testament Manuscript 3: An Early Transcript of the Book of Moses.” Mormon Historical Studies 5, no. 2 (Fall 2004): 113–144.
Jackson, Kent P., ed. “1831 Edward Partridge Genesis Copy.” Joseph Smith’s Translation of the Bible: Electronic Library, ed. Scott H. Faulring and Kent P. Jackson. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Press, 2011.
Jackson, Kent P., ed. “1845 John M. Bernhisel Copy.” Joseph Smith’s Translation of the Bible: Electronic Library, ed. Scott H. Faulring and Kent P. Jackson. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Press, 2011.
Jackson, Kent P., ed. “1866–1867 RLDS Committee Manuscript.” Joseph Smith’s Translation of the Bible: Electronic Library, ed. Scott H. Faulring and Kent P. Jackson. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Press, 2011.
Jensen, Robin Scott. “Ignored and Unknown Clues of Early Mormon Record Keeping.” In Preserving the History of the Latter-day Saints (Brigham Young University Church History Symposium), edited by Richard E. Turley, Jr. and Steven C. Harper, 135–64. Provo and Salt Lake City, Utah: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, and Deseret Book, 2010.
Johnson, M. D. “Life of Adam and Eve.” In The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, edited by James H. Charlesworth, Volume 2, 249–295. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, 1983.
Johnson, Mark J. “The Lost Prologue: Reading Moses Chapter One as an Ancient Text.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 36 (2020): 145–186.

Abstract: The character and complexion of the Prophet Joseph Smith’s translation of the Bible (JST) is often a puzzle to students and scholars. One text in particular, the first chapter of the Book of Moses, claims that its very words would be lost and later restored to the believing. As this bold claim has not yet been verified by the discovery of an ancient copy of this text, clues to the antiquity of this document will need to be discovered within the text itself. This study investigates Moses 1 with the tools of biblical and literary criticism to discover if the text has the characteristics and content of an ancient religious document.

Johnson, Mark J. “Scriptures through the Jeweler’s Lens.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 36 (2020): 85-108.

Review of Terryl Givens with Brian Hauglid, The Pearl of Greatest Price: Mormonism’s Most Controversial Scripture (New York: Oxford University Press, 2019). 285 pages. $34.95 (hardback).

Abstract: Among the many revelatory works of Joseph Smith, members and scholars alike seem to give lesser attention to what is found in the Pearl of Great Price. In The Pearl of Greatest Price, Terryl Givens and Brian Hauglid attempt to provide some of the attention that has been lacking. The result is a book that, while spotty in places, provides a good resource that should receive wide exposure in academic circles. Believing members, on the other hand, may find the book lacking or downright questionable because of the secular approach it takes to dealing with scripture understood to have a divine provenance.

Joseph Smith Papers Project. “Visions of Moses, June 1830 [Moses 1].” In The Joseph Smith Papers.

“A Revelation given to Joseph the Revelator June 1830,” Visions of Moses, [Fayette Township, Seneca Co., NY, or Harmony Township, Susquehanna Co., PA (or possibly Colesville Township or Manchester Township, NY)], June 1830; handwriting of Oliver Cowdery; three pages; now in Old Testament Revision 1, CCLA.

Images of this item © Community of Christ and licensed to the Joseph Smith Papers Project. Inquiries about high-resolution images of this item for scholarly use should be directed to the Community of Christ Library-Archives, Independence, Missouri.

Josephus, Flavius. Jewish Antiquities.. Vol. 5–13 of the Works of Josephus. Translated by Henry St. John Thackaray, Ralph Marcus, Allen Wikgren and Louis H. Feldman. Loeb Classical Library 242, 490, 281, 326, 365, 489, 410, 433, 456. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1930–1965.
Judd, Daniel K. “The Fortunate Fall of Adam and Eve.” In No Weapon Shall Prosper: New Light on Sensitive Issues, ed. Robert L. Millet (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University; Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 2011), 297–328.

Some believe Adam and Eve’s partaking of the fruit of “the tree of knowledge of good and evil” (Genesis 2:9) to be the cause of all that is evil and tragic in the world today. Others believe our first parents merely to be mythical beings whose existence is only a metaphor used to explain mankind’s existence. The doctrines of the restored gospel concerning the historical reality of Adam and Eve and the doctrine of the Fall provide a wealth of understanding concerning the purposes of adversity and opposition and the vital need for the Atonement of Jesus Christ.

Judd, Frank F., Jr. “How to Be Reclaimed from the Fall of Adam.” In Living the Book of Mormon: Abiding by Its Precepts, ed. Gaye Strathearn and Charles Swift (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University; Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 2007), 223–36.

When Alma the Younger returned to Zarahemla following his mission to the Zoramites, “he caused that his sons should be gathered together, that he might give unto them every one his charge, separately, concerning the things pertaining to righteousness” (Alma 35:16). The Book of Mormon contains a significantly larger amount of counsel from Alma to his wayward son Corianton than to Helaman and Shiblon.

Within Alma’s teachings, we discover a concise explanation of the Fall of Adam and three elements necessary to reclaim each individual from the Fall, namely, death, the Atonement, and the Resurrection. This chapter will discuss the Fall of Adam and these three elements in Alma’s teachings to Corianton and also in the inspired teachings of modern apostles and prophets. This chapter will conclude that we can control only one of the three elements necessary to reclaim mankind from the Fall: whether we use the Atonement to repent of our sins and forgive others.

Keller, Roger R. “Teaching the Fall and the Atonement: A Comparative Method.” Religious Educator 5, no. 2 (2004): 101–118.
Kósa, Gåbor. “The Book of Giants tradition in the Chinese Manichaica.” In Ancient Tales of Giants from Qumran and Turfan: Contexts, Traditions, and Influences, edited by Matthew Goff, Loren T. Stuckenbruck and Enrico Morano. Wissenschlaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 360, ed. Jörg Frey, 145-86. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 2016.
Kraft, Robert A. “Philo (Josephus, Sirach and Wisdom of Solomon) on Enoch.” Society of Biblical Literature Seminar Papers 13 (1978): 253–257.
Kugel, James L. The Bible As It Was. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1997.
Kugel, James L. Traditions of the Bible. Revised ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998.
Kulik, Alexander. “Apocalypse of Abraham.” In Outside the Bible: Ancient Jewish Writings Related to Scripture, 3 vols., edited by Louis H. Feldman, James L. Kugel and Lawrence H. Schiffman, 2:1453–1481. Philadelphia, PA: The Jewish Publication Society, 2013.
Kulik, Alexander. Retroverting Slavonic Pseudepigrapha: Toward the Original of the Apocalypse of Abraham. Text-Critical Studies 3, edited by James R. Adair, Jr. Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature, 2004.
Ladle, Douglas S. “Teaching the Fall of Adam and Eve.” Religious Educator 5, no. 1 (2004): 41–55.

Teachers should eagerly anticipate the lesson when their students will learn about the Fall of Adam and Eve. This doctrine is one of three great doctrinal topics that all Latter-day Saints should understand. According to Elder Bruce R. McConkie, “These three are the very pillars of eternity itself. They are the most important events that ever have or will occur in all eternity. They are the Creation, the Fall, and the Atonement.”

Larsen, David J. “Enoch and the City of Zion: Can an Entire Community Ascend to Heaven?” BYU Studies 53, no. 1 (2014): 25–37.

In this article, I will explore the notion of communal ascent to heaven in ancient Jewish and Christian literature and seek to answer the questions, Can an entire community ascend to heaven? and Do we see this theme in ancient texts, or is this a complete innovation on the part of Joseph Smith as he sought to unite his followers around an inspiring and unifying goal? To arrive at the answers to these questions, I will analyze a number of ancient Jewish and Christian religious texts that feature the ascent to heaven motif and suggest that not only did their authors envision an individual ascent, but they also imagined groups or communities raised up to the celestial realm.

Larsen, David J. “Enoch and the City of Zion: Can an Entire Community Ascend to Heaven?” BYU Studies Quarterly 53, no. 1 (2014): 25-37.
LeFevre, David A. “Christology in the Joseph Smith Translation of the Gospels.” In “Thou Art the Christ, the Son of the Living God”: The Person and Work of Jesus in the New Testament (The 47th Annual Brigham Young University Sidney B. Sperry Symposium), edited by Eric D. Huntsman, Lincoln H. Blumell and Tyler J. Griffin, 362–90. Provo and Salt Lake City, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center and Deseret Book, 2018.
Lewis, John S. “The Scale of Creation in Space and Time.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 8 (2014): 71-80.

Abstract: The accounts of creation in Genesis, Moses, and Abraham as well as in higher endowments of knowledge given to the faithful are based on visions in which the seer lacked the vocabulary to describe and the knowledge to interpret what he saw and hence was obliged to record his experiences in the imprecise language available to him. Modern attempts to explain accounts of these visions frequently make use of concepts and terminology that are completely at odds with the understanding of ancient peoples: they project anachronistic concepts that the original seer would not have recognized. This article reviews several aspects of the creation stories in scripture for the purpose of distinguishing anachronistic modern reinterpretations from the content of the original vision.

This essay derives from a presentation made at the 2013 Interpreter Symposium on Science and Religion: Cosmos, Earth, and Man on November 9, 2013. Details on the event, including links to videos, are available at journal.interpreterfoundation.org. An expanded version of the symposium proceedings will be published in hardcopy and digital formats.

Lindsay, Jeff. “‘Arise from the Dust’: Insights from Dust-Related Themes in the Book of Mormon. Part 1: Tracks from the Book of Moses.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 22 (2016): 179–232.
Lindsay, Jeff, and Noel B. Reynolds. “‘Strong Like unto Moses’: The Case for Ancient Roots in the Book of Moses Based on Book of Mormon Usage of Related Content Apparently from the Brass Plates.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 44 (2021): 1-92.

Abstract: Over 30 years ago, Noel Reynolds compared matching non-Biblical phrases in the Book of Moses and Book of Mormon. Based on this analysis, Reynolds proposed a possible connection between the Book of Moses and hypothetical material on the brass plates that may have influenced some Book of Mormon authors. Reynolds’s work, “The Brass Plates Version of Genesis,” provided potentially plausible explanations for additional relationships between the Book of Moses and Book of Mormon that arose in two later Jeff Lindsay studies: one on the Book of Mormon account of Lehi1’s trail and another on the Book of Mormon’s intriguing use of the ancient theme of rising from the dust. The additional findings and connections presented here strengthen the original case Reynolds made for the ancient roots of the Book of Moses, roots that could have extended to the brass plates and then on to the Book of Mormon. Critics might dismiss such connections by asserting that Joseph merely drew from the Book of Mormon when drafting the Book of Moses; however, this view overlooks significant evidence indicating that the direction of dependence is the other way around. In light of the combined evidence now available, it is time to reconsider Reynolds’s original proposal and recognize the possibility that the Book of Moses is more deeply rooted in antiquity that many have recognized in the past.[Editor’s Note: This article is based on a presentation by Reynolds and Lindsay made at the Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses Conference, Provo, Utah, Sept. 18–19, 2020, presented by The Interpreter Foundation, Brigham Young University Department of Ancient Scripture, Book of Mormon Central, and FairMormon. A more detailed version, along with an edited transcript of the question-and-answer session that followed the presentation, can be found in the forthcoming conference proceedings.].

Lindsay, Jeff, and Noel B. Reynolds. “‘Strong Like unto Moses’: The Case for Ancient Roots in the Book of Moses Based on Book of Mormon Usage of Related Content Apparently from the Brass Plates.” In Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities, Volume 1. Edited by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David R. Seely, John W. Welch and Scott Gordon, 315–420. Orem, UT; Springville, UT; Redding, CA; Tooele, UT: The Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, FAIR, and Eborn Books, 2021.
Ludlow, Jared W. “‘Enoch Walked with God, and He Was Not’: Where Did Enoch Go After Genesis?” Presented at the conference entitled “Tracing Ancient Threads of the Book of Moses” (September 18–19, 2020), Provo, UT: Brigham Young University 2020.
Ludlow, Jared W. “‘Enoch Walked with God, and He Was Not’: Where Did Enoch Go after Genesis?” In Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities, Volume 2. Edited by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David R. Seely, John W. Welch and Scott Gordon, 1001–40. Orem, UT; Springville, UT; Redding, CA; Tooele, UT: The Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, FAIR, and Eborn Books, 2021.
Ludlow, Jared W. “The Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible: Ancient Material Restored or Inspired Commentary? Canonical or Optional? Finished or Unfinished?” BYU Studies Quarterly 60, no. 3 (2021): 147–57.

Joseph Smith began an ambitious program to revise the biblical text in June 1830, not long after the organization of the Church of Christ and the publication of the Book of Mormon. While the result came to be known as the Joseph Smith Translation (JST), it was not a literal word-for-word translation of ancient biblical languages from a manuscript but more of an inspired revision or paraphrase based on the King James Version in English, carried out primarily between June 1830 and July 1833.1 Since Joseph Smith never specifically addressed how or exactly why he made the particular changes he did, it is an open question whether he felt he was restoring ancient material, making inspired commentary, modernizing the language, a combination of things, or something else.2 Another open question related to this project is its status among Latter-day Saint scripture. Is the entire JST considered canonical or not? Perhaps a further open question is whether the JST project was ever finished. This paper will address these issues by giving an overview of statements and approaches toward the JST.

Ludlow, Jared W. “A Narrative Approach to the Joseph Smith Translation of the Synoptic Gospels.” BYU Studies Quarterly 54, no. 2 (2015): 35–62.

One of the first projects Joseph Smith undertook after the organization of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in April 1830 was a translation of the Bible. Although it was not a typical translation from original Greek or Hebrew manuscripts, the project was often called a “translation” nonetheless. The Joseph Smith Translation, or JST as it is often called, was referred to by the Lord in the Doctrine and Covenants as “the new translation of my holy word” (D&C 124:89). At the top of the manuscript of the revision of Matthew, it reads, “A translation of the New Testament translated by the power of God.”

Machiela, Daniel A. The Dead Sea Genesis Apocryphon [1QapGen]: A New Text and Translation with Introduction and Special Treatment of Columns 13–17. Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah 79. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2009.

The so-called Genesis Apocryphon (1Q20) from Qumran Cave 1 has suffered from decades of neglect, due in large part to its poor state of preservation. As part of a resurgent scholarly interest in the Apocryphon, and its prominent position among the Aramaic Dead Sea Scrolls, this volume presents a fresh transcription, translation, and exstenive textual notes drawing on close study of the original manuscript, all available photographs, and previous publications. In addition, a detailed analysis of columns 13-15 and their relation to the oft-cited parallel in the Book of Jubilees reveals a number of ways in which the two works differ, thereby highlighting several distinctive features of the Genesis Apocryphon. The result is a reliable text edition and a fuller understanding of the message conveyed by this fragmentary but fascinating retelling of Genesis.

Maher, Michael, ed. Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, Genesis. Vol. 1b. Aramaic Bible. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1992.
Malan, Solomon Caesar, ed. The Book of Adam and Eve: Also Called The Conflict of Adam and Eve with Satan: A Book of the Early Eastern Church. Translated from the Ethiopic, with Notes from the Kufale, Talmud, Midrashim, and Other Eastern Works. London, England: Williams and Norgate, 1882. Reprint, San Diego, CA: The Book Tree, 2005.
Marsh, W. Jeffrey. The Joseph Smith Translation: Precious Truths Restored. American Fork, UT: Covenant Communications, 2002.
Marsh, W. Jeffrey, and Thomas E. Sherry. “Precious Truths Restored: Joseph Smith Translation Changes Not Included in Our Bible.” Religious Educator 5, no. 2 (2004): 56–74.
Martinez, Florentino Garcia, and Eibert J. C. Tigchelaar, eds. The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition. 2 vols. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 1997-1998.
Martinez, Florentino Garcia, and Gerard P. Luttikhuizen, eds. Interpretations of the Flood. Themes in Biblical Narrative: Jewish and Christian Traditions 1, ed. Philip S. Alexander and Gerard P. Luttikhuizen. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1998.
Matt, Daniel C., Nathan Wolski, and Joel Hecker, eds. The Zohar: Complete Set. 12 vols. Zohar: The Pritzker Editions. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2018.
Matthews, Robert J. “Beyond the Biblical Account: Adam, Enoch, Noah, Melchizedek, Abraham, and Moses in Latter-day Revelation.” In A Witness of Jesus Christ: The 1989 Sperry Symposium on the Old Testament, edited by Richard D. Draper, 134–154. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 1990.
Matthews, Robert J. ‘A Bible! A Bible!’: How Latter-day Revelation Helps Us Understand the Scriptures and the Savior. Salt Lake City, UT: Bookcraft, 1990.
Matthews, Robert J. ‘‘A Bible! A Bible!’’: How Latter-day Revelation Helps Us Understand the Scriptures and the Savior. Salt Lake City, UT: Bookcraft, 1990.
Matthews, Robert J. “The Book of Moses.” In A Bible! A Bible!, edited by Robert J. Matthews, 100–114. Salt Lake City, UT: Bookcraft, 1990.
Matthews, Robert J. “Book of Moses.” In Encyclopedia of Latter-day Saint Church History, edited by Arnold K. Garr, Donald Q. Cannon and Richard O. Cowan, 121–22. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 2000.
Matthews, Robert J. “Book of Moses.” In Encyclopedia of Latter-day Saint Church History, edited by Arnold K. Garr, Donald Q. Cannon and Richard O. Cowan, 121–22. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 2000.
Matthews, Robert J. “Historicity and the Truthfulness of God.” In Historicity and the Latter-day Saint Scriptures, edited by Paul Y. Hoskisson, 141–148. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Religious Studies Center, 2001.

While some may argue that gospel truth is separate from historical truth, the gospel cannot be true unless it is also historical. This means that events such as the Creation, Fall, Atonement, and Restoration all truly took place in an identifiable time and place, even if that time and place are not known to us. If these or any gospel events were not historically true, God could not render a righteous judgment on any person.

Matthews, Robert J. “How Joseph Smith Translation Passages Were Selected for the LDS Bible.” In Selected Writings of Robert J. Matthews, edited by Robert J. Matthews. Gospel Scholars Series, 312–313. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 1999.
Matthews, Robert J. “How We Got the Book of Moses.” Ensign. January, 1986.

The book of Moses is the first of several documents in the collection of sacred writings published as the Pearl of Great Price. Although this material is currently labeled “Selections from the Book of Moses,” it was not always specified by that name, nor has the content of the material always been exactly as it is today. A quick look at its origin, development, and content can help us more fully appreciate what the book of Moses is, how it came to be, and why it is a unique witness for Jesus Christ.

Matthews, Robert J. Joseph Smith’s Revision of the Bible. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Press, 1969.
Matthews, Robert J. “The Pearl of Great Price Encounters the Modern World—An Appraisal.” In The Pearl of Great Price: Revelations from God, ed. H. Donl Peterson and Charles D. Tate Jr. (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1989), 13-32.
Matthews, Robert J. “A Plainer Translation”: Joseph Smith’s Translation of the Bible—A History and Commentary. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Press, 1975.
Matthews, Robert J. “What is the Book of Moses?” In The Pearl of Great Price. Studies in Scripture: Volume 2, edited by Robert L. Millet and Kent P. Jackson, 25–41. Salt Lake City, UT: Randall Book Co., 1985.
Matthews, Robert J. “Whose Apocrypha? Viewing Ancient Apocrypha from the Vantage of Events in the Present Dispensation.” In Apocryphal Writings and the Latter-day Saints, edited by C. Wilfred Griggs, 1–18. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Religious Studies Center, 1986.

When I was invited to participate in this symposium on the subject of apocryphal literature, my first inclination was to decline. This was a conference for experts trained in the biblical languages. But after some reflection, I changed my mind because I think there is a place for variety, and there might even be an advantage in having a paper from a nonlinguistic point of view. And so, although I do not know Greek or Hebrew, I have had considerable exposure to Church history, and I am familiar with the formation of several books of scripture and non-scripture. This is especially true as pertaining to the books that are used by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (hereinafter labeled the LDS Church) and the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (hereinafter called the RLDS Church). And I think there are some parallels between the development of books in the Church anciently and development of books in the Church in modern times.

Maxwell, Neal A. Of One Heart: The Glory of the City of Enoch. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 1980.
McConkie, Oscar W., Jr. “Why the Pearl of Great Price.” In The Pearl of Great Price: Revelations from God, ed. H. Donl Peterson and Charles D. Tate Jr. (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1989), 1–12.
McConkie, Rebecca L. “‘A Miracle from Day One’: Publication of the Joseph Smith Translation Manuscripts.” The Religious Educator: Perspectives on the Restored Gospel 5, no. 2 (2004): 13–21.

Later this year, the Religious Studies Center will publish a volume called Joseph Smith’s New Translation of the Bible: Original Manuscripts, edited by Scott H. Faulring, Kent P. Jackson, and Robert J. Matthews. To help readers understand the scope and purpose of this project, the Religious Educator held the following interview with two of the editors.

Milik, Józef Tadeusz, and Matthew Black, eds. The Books of Enoch: Aramaic Fragments from Qumran Cave 4. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press, 1976.

The Enoch Scroll of the texts from Qumran Library Cave 4 has provided parts in Aramaic among the Dead Sea Scrolls discovery between 1947 and 1956. Contents: Aramaic Book of Enoch, Astronomical Book, Book of Watchers, Book of Dreams, Book of Giants, Enochic Writings. NOTE: The Book of Enoch w/ Aramaic fragments from Milik, see The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition, Florentino García Martínez, Eibert J.C. Tigchelaar, 1999

Miller, Adam S., ed. Fleeing the Garden: Reading Genesis 2-3. Maxwell Institute Publications 37. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship, 2017.
Millet, Robert L., and Kent P. Jackson, eds. The Pearl of Great Price. Studies in Scripture: Volume 2. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 1989.
Millet, Robert L., and Kent P. Jackson, eds. The Pearl of Great Price. Studies in Scripture: Volume 2.. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 1989.
Millet, Robert L., and Robert J. Matthews, eds. Plain and Precious Truths Restored: The Doctrinal and Historical Significance of the Joseph Smith Translation. Papers presented at the BYU Symposium ‘As Translated Correctly’: Joseph Smith’s Translations of the Bible, January 13–14, 1995. Salt Lake City, UT: Bookcraft, 1995.
Mopsik, Charles, ed. Le Livre Hébreu d’Hénoch ou Livre des Palais. Les Dix Paroles, ed. Charles Mopsik. Lagrasse, France: Éditions Verdier, 1989.
Morales, L. Michael. The Tabernacle Pre-Figured: Cosmic Mountain Ideology in Genesis and Exodus. Biblical Tools and Studies 15, ed. B. Doyle, G. Van Belle, J. Verheyden and K. U. Leuven. Leuven, Belgium: Peeters, 2012.
Morrison, Alexander B. “The Latter-day Saint Concept of Canon.” In Historicity and the Latter-day Saint Scriptures, edited by Paul Y. Hoskisson, 1–16. Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 2001.

Traditional Christianity struggled for many years to define its canon, to determine which of its writings were sacred, inspired, and authoritative. The Latter-day Saint concept of canon differs from that of other Christians. In addition to the Bible, the Latter-day Saint canon includes the Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants, and the Pearl of Great Price. These “standard works” provide a measuring rod by which we can judge other texts and statements. But while we have a canon, we nevertheless believe that God continues to make known His will through the First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles—men we sustain as prophets, seers, and revelators. Inspired by the Holy Ghost, their decisions are to be made in unity (D&C 107:27). We as Church members also need the Holy Ghost in order to recognize scriptural power in their words, and we can be comforted in the Lord’s promise that the President of the Church will never lead us astray.

Moss, James R. “The Pearl of Great Price and the Conversion Process.” In The Pearl of Great Price: Revelations from God, ed. H. Donl Peterson and Charles D. Tate Jr. (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1989), 33–56.

When the Lord taught the parable of the pearl of great price (Matthew 13:45–46), he could have had direct reference to the great teachings on missionary work found within the Pearl of Great Price we value today as one of our choicest scriptural records. Contained within the histories, visions, doctrinal teachings and other inspired revelations in this standard work are some of the most important foundations and principles of missionary work for this and previous dispensations. As we learn of them our appreciation for the importance of sharing the gospel with others grows, and our understanding of the role of each member of the Church in taking the gospel to the nations of the earth deepens.

Muhlestein, Kerry. “The Doctrine and Covenants and the Book of Moses: An Outpouring of Revelations and the Beginning of Joseph Smith’s ‘New Translation’ of the Bible.” Presented at the conference entitled “Tracing Ancient Threads of the Book of Moses” (April 23-24, 2021), Provo, UT: Brigham Young University 2021.
Muhlestein, Kerry. “The Doctrine and Covenants and the Book of Moses: An Outpouring of Revelations and the Beginning of Joseph Smith’s ‘New Translation’ of the Bible.” In Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities, Volume 1. Edited by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David R. Seely, John W. Welch and Scott Gordon, 137–62. Orem, UT; Springville, UT; Redding, CA; Tooele, UT: The Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, FAIR, and Eborn Books, 2021.
Nelson, Glen. “The Book of Moses.” BYU Studies Quarterly 50, no. 4 (2011): 174.
Neusner, Jacob, ed. Genesis Rabbah: The Judaic Commentary to the Book of Genesis, A New American Translation. 3 vols. Brown Judaic Studies 104, ed. Jacob Neusner. Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1985.
Nibley, Hugh W. “Before Adam.” In Old Testament and Related Studies, The Collected Works of Hugh Nibley 1, edited by John W. Welch, Gary P. Gillum, and Don E. Norton. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1986.

Originally presented as a talk given on 1 April 1980 at Brigham Young University.

A controversial examination of evolution and the Latter-day Saint view on creation and the various roles of Adam.

See also: “Before Adam” (1980)
Nibley, Hugh W. “The Book of Enoch as a Theodicy.” in Enoch the Prophet, The Collected Works of Hugh Nibley 2. 66–88.
Nibley, Hugh W. “The Early Christian Prayer Circle.” BYU Studies 19, no. 1, (1978): 41–78.

Reprinted in Mormonism and Early Christianity, The Collected Works of Hugh Nibley vol. 4, 45–99. Also reprinted in LDS Views on Early Christianity and Apocrypha: Articles from BYU Studies, Salt Lake City: Deseret Book.

Draws upon a host of sources and shows certain parallels between an early Christian form of prayer and that of the Latter-day Saint prayer circle.

Nibley, Hugh W. “The Early Christian Prayer Circle.” In Mormonism and Early Christianity, The Collected Works of Hugh Nibley 4, edited by Todd M. Compton and Stephen D. Ricks. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1987.

Originally published as an article in BYU Studies in 1978.

Draws upon a host of sources and shows certain parallels between an early Christian form of prayer and that of the Latter-day Saint prayer circle.

Nibley, Hugh W. “The Early Christian Prayer Circle.” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture 19, no. 2, (2010): 64-95.

A practice that was eventually condemned by the church because of its Jewish affinities—being found, for example, in the Testaments of Abraham and Job and in the writings of Philo—the prayer circle has a long and complex history in Christian practice. This practice was considered one of the “ mysteries” and therefore was protected from all who weren’t initiated. For the initiated participants, this was a very sacred practice, which demanded unity between all those involved. The prayer circle, generally referred to as a “ dance,” often included hymns, prayers for the living and the dead, and gestures that would prepare the participants for heavenly visitations.

Nibley, Hugh W. “Enoch the Prophet.” Lecture given 22 November 1975 for the Pearl of Great Price Symposium, at Brigham Young University.

Reprinted in Enoch the Prophet, Collected Works of Hugh Nibley vol. 2.

Discusses the book of Enoch and its relationship with the Pearl of Great Price.

Nibley, Hugh W. “Enoch the Prophet.” In Pearl of Great Price Symposium: A Centennial Presentation, 76–85. Provo, UT: BYU Publications, 1976.

Reprinted in Enoch the Prophet, Collected Works of Hugh Nibley vol. 2.

Discusses the book of Enoch and its relationship with the Pearl of Great Price.

Nibley, Hugh W. Enoch the Prophet. The Collected Works of Hugh Nibley 2, edited by Stephen D. Ricks, Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1986. viii + 309 pp.

In the Book of Moses, part of the Latter-day Saint scriptural canon known as the Pearl of Great Price, are what the Prophet Joseph Smith entitled “extracts from the prophecy of Enoch.” These scriptures, says the eminent Latter-day Saint scholar Hugh Nibley, “supply us with the most valuable control yet on the bona fides of the Prophet. . . . We are to test. . . . ‘How does it compare with records known to be authentic?’ The excerpts offer the nearest thing to a perfectly foolproof test—neat, clear-cut, and decisive—of Joseph Smith’s claim to inspiration.”

In Enoch the Prophet, Dr. Nibley examines and defends that claim by examining Joseph Smith’s translations in the context of recently discovered apocryphal sources.

This book contains a collection of various comparisons of the Enoch materials in the Book of Moses with the Slavonic and Ethiopic Enoch texts and other related materials and lore from antiquity, showing the possibility that Joseph Smith’s book of Enoch could be authentic ancient text.

Nibley, Hugh W. “G-2 Report, Enuma Elish, The Babylonian Poem of the Creation.” 4 pp. s.s., n.d.

A series of handouts prepared in the fifties and early sixties for distribution to various audiences.

“Years ago, it was my custom to communicate to the General Authorities in an occasional brash and self-appointed newsletter (called a ‘G-2 Report’) items of interest dealing with new discoveries which I considered significant. My boldness was not ill-received.” —Quoting a letter from Nibley to Elder Bruce R. McConkie, 2 October 1979.

Nibley, Hugh W. “Hugh Nibley’s Pearl of Great Price Lecture Series at Brigham Young University.” Winter Semester, 1986, Maxwell Institute.

Published as Ancient Documents and the Pearl of Great Price.

Dr. Hugh W. Nibley, professor emeritus of ancient scriptures at Brigham Young University, gave the following twenty-six lectures in an honors class on The Pearl of Great Price. This class was videotaped in the Maesar Building during winter semester 1986 and the text was then transcribed and is included here in this book.

Nibley, Hugh W. “Lecture 10—The Babylon Creation Myth.” In Pearl of Great Price Lecture Series. Lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS).
Nibley, Hugh W. “Lecture 11—The Human Condition.” In Pearl of Great Price Lecture Series. Lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS).
Nibley, Hugh W. “Lecture 12—The Plurality of Worlds.” In Pearl of Great Price Lecture Series. Lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS).
Nibley, Hugh W. “Lecture 13—The Pearl of Great Price on the Plurality of Worlds.” In Pearl of Great Price Lecture Series. Lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS).
Nibley, Hugh W. “Lecture 14—Treasures in Heaven.” In Pearl of Great Price Lecture Series. Lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS).
Nibley, Hugh W. “Lecture 15—The Geological Problem.” In Pearl of Great Price Lecture Series. Lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS).
Nibley, Hugh W. “Lecture 17—The Heavenly Prologue.” In Pearl of Great Price Lecture Series. Lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS).
Nibley, Hugh W. “Lecture 18—The Combat.” In Pearl of Great Price Lecture Series. Lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS).
Nibley, Hugh W. “Lecture 19—Adam and Eve.” In Pearl of Great Price Lecture Series. Lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS).
Nibley, Hugh W. “Lecture 1—Restoring What Was Lost.” In Pearl of Great Price Lecture Series. Lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS).
Nibley, Hugh W. “Lecture 20—The Heritage of Cain.” In Pearl of Great Price Lecture Series. Lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS).
Nibley, Hugh W. “Lecture 21—The Eve Theme; The Book of Enoch.” In Pearl of Great Price Lecture Series. Lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS).
Nibley, Hugh W. “Lecture 22—Enoch.” In Pearl of Great Price Lecture Series. Lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS).
Nibley, Hugh W. “Lecture 24—The Destruction.” In Pearl of Great Price Lecture Series. Lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS).
Nibley, Hugh W. “Lecture 3—Literalism.” In Pearl of Great Price Lecture Series. Lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS).
Nibley, Hugh W. “Lecture 6—The Creation.” In Pearl of Great Price Lecture Series. Lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS).
Nibley, Hugh W. “Lecture 7—The Council.” In Pearl of Great Price Lecture Series. Lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS).
Nibley, Hugh W. “Lecture 8—The Council According to the Shabako Stone.” In Pearl of Great Price Lecture Series. Lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS).
Nibley, Hugh W. “Lecture 9—The Council According to the Shabako Stone (Continued).” In Pearl of Great Price Lecture Series. Lectures presented to an Honors Book of Mormon class at Brigham Young University, Winter Semester, 1986. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS).
Nibley, Hugh W. “Man's Dominion.” New Era.

Pointed social commentary concerning the state of the natural environment.

Nibley, Hugh W. “Part 1.” In A Strange Thing in the Land: The Return of the Book of Enoch series, Ensign, October 1975, 78–84.

A discussion of the Book of Enoch as extracts of “The Writings of Moses.”

Nibley, Hugh W. “Part 10.” In A Strange Thing in the Land: The Return of the Book of Enoch series, Ensign, March 1977, 86–90.

This exciting and penetrating comparison of the Joseph Smith book of Enoch, with four known variant manuscripts of that ancient work, provides yet another evidence of the Prophet’s inspiration and the scope of his vision in the great work of the Restoration.

Nibley, Hugh W. “Part 11.” In A Strange Thing in the Land: The Return of the Book of Enoch series, Ensign, April 1977, 78–89.

This follows the idea that Enoch had great cosmological visions.

Nibley, Hugh W. “Part 12.” In A Strange Thing in the Land: The Return of the Book of Enoch series, Ensign, June 1977, 78–90.

The deliberate wickedness of the people at Enoch’s time created a moral turbulence that was reflected in chaotic nature, such as earthquakes.

In this installment, Brother Nibley first concludes his discussion of the veil, then uses scriptural sources from the book of Moses and nonscriptural accounts by apochryphal writers of texts not available to Joseph Smith to give us an intriguing image of Enoch’s holy city.

Nibley, Hugh W. “Part 13.” In A Strange Thing in the Land: The Return of the Book of Enoch series, Ensign, August 1977, 64–65.

A discussion of the translation of the Dead Sea Scroll book of Enoch.

Nibley, Hugh W. “Part 2.” In A Strange Thing in the Land: The Return of the Book of Enoch series, Ensign, December 1975, 72–76.

With the October 1975 issue, the Ensign began a series on the book of Enoch authored by Hugh Nibley. As Part 1 recounts, early Christian writers knew and respected the book of Enoch, but biblical scholars neglected it in scorn after the excitement of the Reformation was over. However, James Bruce, exploring the sources of the Nile in 1773, brought back three copies. Part 2 describes the critical response—or lack of it—to these documents and then turns to examining the four versions of the book of Enoch against which Joseph Smith’s writing must be judged.

Nibley, Hugh W. “Part 3.” In A Strange Thing in the Land: The Return of the Book of Enoch series, Ensign, February 1976, 64–68.

This section of the examination of Enoch compared Joseph Smith’s book of Enoch step-by-step with four main classes of documents, commonly designated as the following: I Enoch (the Ethiopic texts, beginning with the three brought to England by Bruce in 1773), II Enoch (also called the Secrets of Enoch in Old Slavonic), III Enoch (Enoch texts in Greek), and scattered Hebrew and Aramaic Enoch fragments. Since these are to serve as checks on the reliability of the Prophet Joseph, the qualifications of each should be briefly considered.

Nibley, Hugh W. “Part 4.” In A Strange Thing in the Land: The Return of the Book of Enoch series, Ensign, March 1976, 62–66.

Discusses how Christian Enoch’s writings are.

Nibley, Hugh W. “Part 5.” In A Strange Thing in the Land: The Return of the Book of Enoch series, Ensign, April 1976, 60–64.

Suggests that what is written on earth is written in heaven and discusses how that comes into play with writing spiritual matters that the Lord has commanded be written.

Nibley, Hugh W. “Part 6.” In A Strange Thing in the Land: The Return of the Book of Enoch series, Ensign, July 1976, 64–68.

The Improvement Era was an official magazine of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints between 1897 and 1970.

A study of the book of Enoch as a recording of sacred matters.

Nibley, Hugh W. “Part 7.” In A Strange Thing in the Land: The Return of the Book of Enoch series, Ensign, October 1976, 76–81.

Suggests parallels to Moses 1, which lie far beyond the reach of coincidence or daydreaming. The number of details and the order in which they occur make it perfectly clear that we are dealing with specific works of great antiquity which come from a common source. To show what they mean, they compare Moses’s, Abraham’s, and Adam’s confrontations with Satan.

Nibley, Hugh W. “Part 8.” In A Strange Thing in the Land: The Return of the Book of Enoch series, Ensign, December 1976, 73–78.

The purpose of these articles is to (1) call attention to some of the long-ignored aspects of the Joseph Smith account of Enoch in the book of Moses and in the Inspired Version of Genesis and (2) provide at the same time some of the evidence that establishes the authenticity of that remarkable text. Contemporary learning offered few checks to the imagination of Joseph Smith; the enthusiasm of his followers presented none.

Nibley, Hugh W. “Part 9.” In A Strange Thing in the Land: The Return of the Book of Enoch series, Ensign, February 1977, 66–75.

Addresses the dangers of oversimplifying the scriptures and attempts to look at the Book of Mormon without such oversimplification.

Nibley, Hugh W. “Patriarchy and Matriarchy.” In Blueprints for Living: Perspectives for Latter-day Saint Women 1, edited by Maren M. Mouritsen, 44–61. Provo, UT: BYU Press, 1980.

Reprinted in Old Testament and Related Studies, The Collected Works of Hugh Nibley 1. 87–114.

An address given at the BYU Women’s Conference, 1 February 1980.

Nibley, Hugh W. “Sacred Vestments.” In Temple and Cosmos: Beyond This Ignorant Present, Collected Works of Hugh Nibley, vol. 12. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1992.

In Temple and Cosmos, Brother Nibley explains the relationship of the House of the Lord to the cosmos. In Temple, the first part of the volume, he focuses on the nature, meaning, and history of the temple, discussing such topics as sacred vestments, the circle and the square, and the symbolism of the temple and its ordinances. In the second part, Cosmos, he discusses the cosmic context of the temple-the expanding gospel, apocryphal writings, religion and history, the genesis of the written word, cultural diversity in the universal church, and the terrible questions: Where did we come from? Why are we here? and Where are we going?

This lecture was originally accompanied by slides. It was circulated in two different editions in 1986 and 1987 and was available in a much expanded version, including illustrations, in 1988.

See also: “Sacred Vestments” (1975)
Nibley, Hugh W. “A Strange Thing in the Land: The Return of the Book of Enoch.” A series of articles in the Ensign in 13 parts running from Oct 1975 through Aug 1977.

Reprinted in Enoch the Prophet, The Collected Works of Hugh Nibley 2. 91–301.

A discussion of the worldview and scenario of the Hopis. Editor’s note: With the October 1975 issue, the Ensign began a series on the book of Enoch authored by Hugh Nibley. As Part 1 recounts, early Christian writers knew and respected the book of Enoch, but biblical scholars neglected it in scorn after the excitement of the Reformation was over. However, James Bruce, exploring the sources of the Nile in 1773, brought back three copies. Part 2 describes the critical response—or lack of it—to these documents and then turns to examining the four versions of the book of Enoch against which Joseph Smith’s writing must be judged.

Nibley, Hugh W. “Subduing the Earth: Man's Dominion.” In Nibley on the Timely and the Timeless, 95–110. 2nd ed. Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2004.

The essays in this volume, including four on today’s world, were selected by a panel of Hugh Nibley’s colleagues. They are singular in their penetration, their originality, and their vitality. Reaching from the apocalyptic visions of original “treasures in heaven” down to the climax of history, they are more than mind-stretching. The delight of Nibley’s brilliant and sometimes biting prose style imparts a sense of the agelessness of what he calls the “three-act play” of human existence. Written specially for this book, the author’s own “intellectual autobiography,” together with his introductory paragraphs for the various chapters, complete the work of making the book a fitting and permanent record of one of the past outstanding historians

Ever since the days of the Prophet Joseph, presidents of the Church have appealed to the Saints to be magnanimous and forbearing toward all of God’s creatures. But in the great West, where everything was up for grabs, it was more than human nature could endure to be left out of the great grabbing game, especially when one happened to get there first, as the Mormons often did. One morning, just a week after we had moved into our house on Seventh North, as I was leaving for work, I found a group of shouting, arm-waving boys gathered around the big fir tree in the front yard. They had sticks and stones, and in a state of high excitement were fiercely attacking the lowest branches of the tree, which hung to the ground. Why? I asked. There was a quail in the tree, they said in breathless zeal, a quail! Of course, said I, what is wrong with that? But don’t you see, it is a live quail? A wild one! So they just had to kill it. They were on their way to the old B. Y. High School and were Boy Scouts. Does this story surprise you? What surprised me was when I later went to Chicago and saw squirrels running around the city parks in broad daylight; they would not last a day in Provo. Like Varro’s patrician friends, we have taught our children by precept and example that every living thing exists to be converted into cash, and that whatever would not yield a return should be quickly exterminated to make way for creatures that do. (We have referred to this elsewhere as the Mahan Principle; Moses 5:31.) I have heard influential Latter-day Saints express this philosophy. The earth is our enemy, I was taught does it not bring forth noxious weeds to afflict and torment man? And who cared if his allergies were the result of the Fall, man’s own doing? But one thing worried me: if God were to despise all things beneath Him, as we do, where would that leave us? Inquiring about today, one discovers that many Latter-day Saints feel that the time has come to put an end to the killing.

Nibley, Hugh W. Teachings of the Pearl of Great Price. Published as Ancient Documents and the Pearl of Great Price. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS), 1986.

Dr. Hugh W. Nibley, professor emeritus of ancient scriptures at Brigham Young University, gave the following twenty-six lectures in an honors class on The Pearl of Great Price. This class was videotaped in the Maesar Building during winter semester 1986 and the text was then transcribed and is included here in this book.

Nibley, Hugh W. “To Open the Last Dispensation: Moses Chapter 1.” In Nibley on the Timely and the Timeless, 1–22. 2nd ed. Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2004.

After all these years, it comes as a surprise for me to learn that the book of Moses appeared in the same year as the publication of the Book of Mormon, the first chapter being delivered in the very month of its publication. And it is a totally different kind of book, in another style, from another world. It puts to rest the silly arguments about who really wrote the Book of Mormon, for whoever produced the book of Moses would have been even a greater genius. That first chapter is a composition of unsurpassed magnificence. And we have all overlooked it completely.

Nibley, Hugh W. “What Did Hugh Nibley Have to Say About the LDS Enoch and the Aramaic Book of the Giants?” The Interpreter Foundation.

These comments by Nibley are excerpted from a FARMS videocassette entitled “The Dead Sea Scrolls: A New Era Dawns.”

It contains material recorded in connection with a National Interfaith Conference on the Dead Sea Scrolls, 20 November 1992 in the Kresge Auditorium of Stanford University.

Nickelsburg, George W. E. “Enoch, Levi, and Peter: Recipients of Revelation in Upper Galilee.” Journal of Biblical Literature 100, no. 4 (December 1981): 575–600.
Nickelsburg, George W. E. Jewish Literature Between the Bible and the Mishnah: A Historical and Literary Introduction. 2nd edition. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2005.
Nickelsburg, George W. E. “Review of ‘The Older Testament, by Margaret Barker’” Journal of Biblical Literature 109, no. 2 (Summer 1990): 335–337.
Nickelsburg, George W. E. “The Temple According to 1 Enoch.” BYU Studies Quarterly 53, no. 1 (2006): 7-24.

What does the Book of Enoch say or not say about the temple, and to which Book of Enoch do I refer? Is it the text called 1 Enoch, or the one known as 2 Enoch, or the so-called 3 Enoch? And all of them discuss or, better, visualize the temple. I restrict myself here to 1 Enoch.

Nickelsburg, George W. E. “The Temple According to 1 Enoch.” BYU Studies 53, no. 1 (2014): 7–24.

What does the Book of Enoch say or not say about the temple, and to which Book of Enoch do I refer? Is it the text called 1 Enoch, or the one known as 2 Enoch, or the so-called 3 Enoch? And all of them discuss or, better, visualize the temple. I restrict myself here to 1 Enoch.

Nickelsburg, George W. E., and James C. VanderKam, eds. 1 Enoch 2: A Commentary on the Book of 1 Enoch, Chapters 37–82. Hermeneia: A Critical and Historical Commentary on the Bible. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2012.
Nickelsburg, George W. E., and James C. VanderKam, eds. 1 Enoch: The Hermeneia Translation. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2012.
Nickelsburg, George W. E., ed. 1 Enoch 1: A Commentary on the Book of 1 Enoch, Chapters 1–36; 81–108. Hermeneia: A Critical and Historical Commentary on the Bible. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2001.
Nickelsburg, George W. E., ed. Hermeneia: 1 Enoch 1: A Commentary on the Book of 1 Enoch, Chapters 1–36; 81–108. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2001.
Norman, Keith E. “Ex Nihilo: The Development of the Doctrines of God and Creation in Early Christianity.” BYU Studies Quarterly 17, no. 3 (1977): 291-318.

Joseph Smith taught that the first principle of revealed religion is to know for a certainty the character of God, and his reaffirmation of Deity as the loving, personal Father of the scriptures stands in conspicuous contrast to the confusion and obscurity of traditional and modern theologies. Just as the orthodox doctrine of an incomprehensible God who creates ex nihilo is clearly odds with the prophetic proclamation in both the Old and New Testaments, by the same measure the Latter-day Saint conception of divine creation in terms of the organization of eternal man provides a remarkable commentary on Joseph Smith’s claim to be a prophet of the Living God and on his work in the restitution of all things.

Nyman, Monte S., and Robert L. Millet, eds. The Joseph Smith Translation: The Restoration of Plain and Precious Things. Religious Studies Center Monograph Series 12. Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 1985.

Ten prominent Church scholars presented at the symposium on the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible. Their in-depth study of the Joseph Smith Translation and related scriptures clarifies the Bible from Genesis to Revelation and show how Joseph Smith restored many plain and precious truths to that holy book. This volume brings together those addresses, illuminating this inspired translation as perhaps no other book had done.

Oaks, Dallin H. “The Historicity of the Book of Mormon.” In Historicity and the Latter-day Saint Scriptures, edited by Paul Y. Hoskisson, 237–248. Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 2001.

The issue of the historicity of the Book of Mormon highlights the difference between those who rely solely on scholarship and those who rely on revelation, faith, and scholarship. Those who rely solely on scholarship reject revelation and focus on a limited number of issues. But they can neither prove nor disprove the authenticity of the Book of Mormon through their secular evidence and methods. On the other hand, those who rely on a combination of revelation, faith, and scholarship can see and understand all of the complex issues of the Book of Mormon record, and it is only through that combination that the question of the historicity of the Book of Mormon can be answered.

Orlov, Andrei A. Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in Early Jewish Demonology. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2011.
Orlov, Andrei A. Divine Manifestations in the Slavonic Pseudepigrapha. Orientalia Judaica Christiana 2. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2009.
Orlov, Andrei A. The Enoch-Metatron Tradition. Texts and Studies in Ancient Judaism 107. Tübingen, Germany Mohr Siebeck, 2005.
Orlov, Andrei A. Heavenly Priesthood in the Apocalypse of Abraham. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
Orlov, Andrei A. Selected Studies in the Slavonic Pseudepigrapha. Studia in Veteris Testamenti Pseudepigrapha 23. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2009.
Ouaknin, Marc-Alain, and Éric Smilévitch, eds. Chapitres de Rabbi Éliézer (Pirqé de Rabbi Éliézer): Midrach sur Genèse, Exode, Nombres, Esther. Les Dix Paroles, ed. Charles Mopsik. Lagrasse, France: Éditions Verdier, 1992.
Parker, Jared T. “The Doctrine of Christ in 2 Nephi 31–32 as an Approach to the Vision of the Tree of Life.” In: The Things Which My Father Saw: Approaches to Lehi’s Dream and Nephi’s Vision (2011 Sperry Symposium). Ed. Daniel L. Belnap, Gaye Strathearn, and Stanley A. Johnson. Provo and Salt Lake City, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center and Deseret Book, 2011. 161–178.
Parry, Donald W. “Ancient Sacred Vestments: Scriptural Symbols and Meanings.” In Temple Insights: Proceedings of the Interpreter Matthew B. Brown Memorial Conference “The Temple on Mount Zion, 22 September 2012, edited by William J. Hamblin and David Rolph Seely. Temple on Mount Zion Series 2, 215–235. Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2014.
Parry, Donald W. “The Cherubim, the Flaming Sword, the Path, and the Tree of Life.” In The Tree of Life: From Eden to Eternity, edited by John W. Welch and Donald W. Parry, 1–24. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 2011.
Parry, Donald W. “Eve’s Role as a ‘Help’ (‘ezer) Revisited.” In Seek Ye Words of Wisdom: Studies of the Book of Mormon, Bible, and Temple in Honor of Stephen D. Ricks, edited by Donald W. Parry, Gaye Strathearn and Shon D. Hopkin, 199–216. Orem and Provo, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Religious Education, Brigham Young University, 2020.
Parry, Donald W. “The Flood and the Tower of Babel.” Ensign 28, January 1998, 35–41.
Parry, Donald W. “Garden of Eden: Prototype Sanctuary.” In Temples of the Ancient World, edited by Donald W. Parry, 126–151. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 1994.

The Garden of Eden pericope (Genesis 2-3) contains a number of powerful symbols that are related to and represent archetypal depictions of subsequent Israelite temple systems. In a cogent manner, the Garden of Eden, as it is referred to throughout the Bible, Pseudepigrapha, and rabbinic writings, served as the prototype, pattern, and/ or originator of subsequent Israelite temples, “a type of archetypal sanctuary.” The garden was not a sanctuary built of cedar or marble, for it is not necessary for a temple to possess an edifice or structure; but rather it was an area of sacred space made holy because God’s presence was found there. Mircea Eliade has stated that the Garden of Eden was the heavenly prototype of the temple, and the Book of Jubilees 3:19 adds that “the garden of Eden is the Holy of Holies, and the dwelling of the Lord.” This essay will examine these claims.

Parry, Donald W. Preserved in Translation: Hebrew and Other Ancient Literary Forms in the Book of Mormon. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 2020.
Parry, Donald W., and Dana M. Pike, eds. LDS Perspectives on the Dead Sea Scrolls. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS), 1997.
Parry, Donald W., and Emanuel Tov, eds. The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader. 2nd edition, Volume 1. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2013.
Parry, Donald W., and Stephen D. Ricks. The Dead Sea Scrolls: Questions and Responses for Latter-day Saints. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS), 2000.

Since their initial discovery in 1947, the ancient scrolls found in caves near the Dead Sea have stirred public curiosity. For Latter-day Saints, whose scriptural tradition speaks of sacred records to come forth in the last days, the Dead Sea Scrolls naturally give rise to questions such as:

— Are there references to Christ or Christianity in the scrolls?

— Do the scrolls contain scripture missing from the Bible?

— Is the plan of salvation attested in the scrolls?

— Do the scrolls refer to Joseph Smith or other latter-day figures?

The Dead Sea Scrolls: Questions and Responses for Latter-day Saints succinctly deals with these and other questions on topics of particular interest to LDS readers. These topics are based on actual questions that Latter-day Saints have asked the authors as they have taught classes at Brigham Young University, shared their research at professional symposia, and spoken in other settings.

Parry, Jay A., and Donald W. Parry. “The Temple in Heaven: Its Description and Significance.” In Temples of the Ancient World, edited by Donald W. Parry, 515–532. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 1994.
Paul, Erich Robert. Science, Religion, and Mormon Cosmology. Urbana and Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1992.
Paulsen, David L. “Joseph Smith Challenges the Theological World.” BYU Studies Quarterly 44, no. 4 (2006): 175-212.
Paulsen-Reed, Amy Elizabeth. The Origins of the Apocalypse of Abraham. Dissertation for the Degree of Doctor of Theology in the subject of the Hebrew Bible. Harvard Divinity School. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 2016.

The Apocalypse of Abraham, a pseudepigraphon only extant in a fourteenth century Old Church Slavonic manuscript, has not received much attention from scholars of Ancient Judaism, due in part to a lack of readily available information regarding the history and transmission of the Slavonic Pseudepigrapha. This dissertation examines the historical context of these works with the aim of assessing the probability that they contain ancient Jewish material. The rest of the dissertation is focused on the Apocalypse of Abraham specifically, discussing its date and provenance, original language, probability that it comes from Essene circles, textual unity, and Christian interpolations. This includes treatments of the issue of free will, determinism, and predestination in the Apocalypse of Abraham as well as the methodological complexities in trying to distinguish between early Jewish and Christian works. It also provides an in-depth comparison of the Apocalypse of Abraham with 4 Ezra and 2 Baruch and takes up the question of the social setting for these texts based on relevant precedents set by recent scholars of midrash who seek to probe the “socio-cultural and historical situatedness” of midrashic texts. This discussion includes a survey of parallels between the content of the Apocalypse of Abraham and rabbinic literature to support the argument that a sharp distinction between apocalyptic ideas and what later became rabbinic tradition did not exist in the time between 70 and 135 C.E. Overall, this dissertation argues that the Apocalypse of Abraham is an early Jewish document written during the decades following the destruction of the Second Temple. While seeking to warn its readers of the dangers of idolatry in light of the apocalyptic judgment still to come, it also provides sustained exegesis of Genesis 15, which gives cohesion to the entire document.

Peck, Steven L. Evolving Faith: Wanderings of a Mormon Biologist. Provo, UT: Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship, Brigham Young University, 2015.
Peterson, Daniel C. “Notes on Historicity and Inerrancy.” In Historicity and the Latter-day Saint Scriptures, edited by Paul Y. Hoskisson, 197–215. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Religious Studies Center, 2001.

Some believe that historicity and inerrancy in scripture are the same. By this argument, when a portion of scripture is found to have errors, the entire record is considered neither historical nor accurate. However, nothing in this imperfect world is inerrant, and although the authors of the scriptural records were prophets and called of God to write their portion of the scriptures, they were not perfect—no one is. So although the authors were not inerrant, their writings are nonetheless historical. By academic standards the scriptures fulfill all the criteria for historically accurate records. With the human errors accounted for, the scriptures are reliable historically and accurate in their testimony of the doctrines of the gospel and the mission of Jesus Christ.

Peterson, Daniel C. “On the Motif of the Weeping God in Moses 7.” In Revelation, Reason, and Faith: Essays in Honor of Truman G. Madsen, edited by Donald W. Parry, Daniel C. Peterson and Stephen D. Ricks, 285–317. Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS), 2002.
Peterson, H. Donl. The Pearl of Great Price: A History and Commentary. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book, 1987.
Peterson, H. Donl. “Sacred Writings from the Tombs of Egypt.” In The Pearl of Great Price: Revelations from God, ed. H. Donl Peterson and Charles D. Tate Jr. (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1989), 137–54.
Peterson, H. Donl, and Charles D. Tate Jr., eds. The Pearl of Great Price: Revelations from God. Provo and Salt Lake City, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center and Deseret Book, 1989.

“For behold, this is my work and my glory—to bring to pas the immortality and eternal life of man.” This profound doctrinal statement is one of many contained in the Pearl of Great Price, the smallest of the standard works and the last to be canonized. Studying that scripture in depth adds immensely to our understanding of the Lord’s eternal plan. Comprising addresses delivered at a symposium on the Pearl of Great Price, this book combines the insights and testimonies of thirteen gospel scholars. All things were created to bear witness of God. As here shown, the Pearl of Great Price does that in many ways.

Peterson, H. Donl, and Charles D. Tate Jr., eds. The Pearl of Great Price: Revelations from God. Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1989.
Philo. Philo. 12 vols. The Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1939–1953.
Pike, Dana M. “The Latter-day Saint Reimaging of ‘the Breath of Life’ (Genesis 2:7).” BYU Studies Quarterly 56, no. 2 (2017): 71-104.

The creation and flood accounts in Genesis in the Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament) contain variations on a phrase commonly translated “the breath of life.” This phrase additionally occurs in some uniquely Latter-day Saint materials relating to creation. After overviewing and analyzing this phrase and its meaning in the Bible, this paper then examines the occurrences of the phrase “the breath of life” in important early Latter-day Saint texts.1 The purpose of this study is to illustrate and explain how and why many Latter-day Saints have come to often employ the phrase “the breath of life,” transforming its traditional biblical meaning into a new, Restoration-oriented use referencing the embodiment of the first human’s premortal spirit and, by extension, the embodiment of all other people’s spirits.

Pleins, J. David. When the Great Abyss Opened: Classic and Contemporary Readings of Noah’s Flood. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Pratt, Orson. “Zion of Enoch.” The Seer 2, no. 5 (May 1854): 261–265. Reprint, Orem, UT: Grandin Book Company, 1994.
Pratt, Parley P. “The Apocryphal Book of Enoch.” Millennial Star 1 (July 1840): 61–63.
Reed, Annette Yoshiko. Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Reed, Annette Yoshiko. “The Legacy of Enoch from the Middle Ages.” Paper prepared for pre-circulation for the Tenth Enoch Seminar, June 2019 (DRAFT). In Semantic Scholar.
Reeves, John C. Heralds of that Good Realm: Syro-Mesopotamian Gnosis and Jewish Traditions. Nag Hammadi and Manichaean Studies 41, edited by James M. Robinson and Hans-Joachim Klimkeit. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1996.
Reeves, John C. Jewish Lore in Manichaean Cosmogony: Studies in the Book of Giants Traditions. Monographs of the Hebrew Union College 14. Cincinnati, OH: Hebrew Union College Press, 1992.
Reeves, John C., and Annette Yoshiko Reed. Sources from Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. 2 vols. Enoch from Antiquity to the Middle Ages 1. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2018.
Reynolds, Noel B. “The Brass Plates Version of Genesis.” In By Study and Also By Faith: Essays in Honor of Hugh W. Nibley on the Occasion of His Eightieth Birthday, 27 March 1990, vol. 2. Edited by John M. Lundquist and Stephen D. Ricks. Provo, UT, and Salt Lake City: FARMS and Deseret Book, 1990.

This second of two volumes of essays honoring Hugh Nibley includes scholarly papers based on what the authors have learned from Nibley. Nearly every major subject that Dr. Nibley has encompassed in his vast learning and scholarly production is represented here by at least one article. Topics include the sacrament covenant in Third Nephi, the Lamanite view of Book of Mormon history, external evidences of the Book of Mormon, proper names in the Book of Mormon, the brass plates version of Genesis, the composition of Lehi’s family, ancient burials of metal documents in stone boxes, repentance as rethinking, Mormon history’s encounter with secular modernity, and Judaism in the 20th century.

Are there indirect evidences of distinctive contents of the brass plates? Can we learn anything about the plates and their contents through an examination of indirect textual evidence in the Book of Mormon?

Reynolds, Noel B. “The Brass Plates Version of Genesis.” Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 34 (2020): 63-96.

Abstract: The Book of Mormon peoples repeatedly indicated that they were descendants of Joseph, the son of Jacob who was sold into Egypt by his brothers. The plates of brass that they took with them from Jerusalem c. 600 bce provided them with a version of many Old Testament books and others not included in our Hebrew Bible. Sometime after publishing his translation of the Book of Mormon, Joseph Smith undertook an inspired revision of the Bible. The opening chapters of his version of Genesis contain a lot of material not included in the Hebrew Bible. But intriguingly, distinctive phraseology in those chapters, as now published in Joseph Smith’s Book of Moses, also show up in the Book of Mormon text. This paper presents a systematic examination of those repeated phrases and finds strong evidence for the conclusion that the version of Genesis used by the Nephite prophets must have been closely similar to Joseph Smith’s Book of Moses.

[Editor’s Note: This paper appeared first in the 1990 festschrift published to honor Hugh W. Nibley.

It is reprinted here as a convenience for current scholars who are interested in intertextual issues regarding the Book of Mormon. It should be noted that Interpreter has published another paper that picks up this same insight and develops considerable additional evidence supporting the conclusions of the original paper.

This reprint uses footnotes instead of endnotes, and there are two more footnotes in this reprint than there are endnotes in the original paper.].

Reynolds, Noel B., and Jeff Lindsay. “‘Strong Like Unto Moses’: The Case for Ancient Roots in the Book of Moses Based on Book of Mormon Usage of Related Content Apparently from the Brass Plates.” Presented at the conference entitled “Tracing Ancient Threads of the Book of Moses” (September 18–19, 2020), Provo, UT: Brigham Young University 2020.
Rhodes, Michael D. “The Scriptural Accounts of the Creation: A Scientific Perspective.” In Converging Paths to Truth, ed. Michael D. Rhodes and J. Ward Moody (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University; Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, Salt Lake City, 2011), 123–50.

The purpose of this paper is to examine the scriptural accounts of the Creation from a scientific point of view with particular emphasis on physics and astronomy, although of necessity I will also have to deal to some extent with biology, chemistry, and geology. The views expressed here are my own and are not meant to represent the views of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or Brigham Young University. They are a distillation of my thoughts and conclusions over two decades of teaching and research.

Ri, Andreas Su-Min. Commentaire de la Caverne des Trésors: Étude sur l’Histoire du Texte et de ses Sources. Supplementary Volume 103. Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium 581. Leuven, Belgium: Peeters, 2000.
Ri, Andreas Su-Min, ed. La Caverne des Trésors: Les deux recensions syriaques. 2 vols. Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium 486–487 (Scriptores Syri 207–208). Louvain, Belgium: Peeters, 1987.
Ricks, Stephen D. “The Narrative Call Pattern in the Prophetic Commission of Enoch.” BYU Studies 26, no. 4 (1986): 97–105.

There is a striking example of a “narrative” type call in the prophetic commission of Enoch in Moses 6:23–36. This study considers the elements of the narrative call pattern; those elements of this form found in the prophetic commission of Enoch are examined and compared with the biblical narrative call passages.

Ricks, Stephen D. “The Narrative Call Pattern in the Prophetic Commission of Enoch (Moses 6).” BYU Studies Quarterly 26, no. 4 (1986): 97-105.

There is a striking example of a “narrative” type call in the prophetic commission of Enoch in Moses 6:23–36. This study considers the elements of the narrative call pattern; those elements of this form found in the prophetic commission of Enoch are examined and compared with the biblical narrative call passages.

The report of the prophetic vocation of Enoch in the book of Moses accords with impressive consistency with the call narratives in the Bible. All of the elements of the prophetic call pattern isolated and examined by Habel in the calls of Moses, Gideon, and Jeremiah are also found in the Enoch passage; with one minor exception, the order of the elements in the vocation of Enoch is the same as in the call accounts recorded in the Bible. This additional authenticating detail places Enoch more securely in the tradition of the prophets and the book of Moses more firmly in the form and tradition of the prophetic literature.

Ricks, Stephen D., and Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, eds. The Temple: Past, Present, and Future. Proceedings of the Fifth Interpreter Foundation Matthew B. Brown Memorial Conference, 7 November 2020. Temple on Mount Zion 6. Orem and Salt Lake City, UT: The Interpreter Foundation and Eborn Books, 2021.

The temple is central to Latter-day Saint worship. Through modern revelation Joseph Smith restored the ancient tradition of temples and the ordinances performed therein. Studies of ancient temples can shed much light on latter-day temples and temple worship.

Several years ago Latter-day Saint scholar Matthew Brown planned a conference entitled The Temple on Mount Zion and began to invite the participants. Matthew Brown loved the temple and temple worship and studied and published on ancient and modern temples. His interests and knowledge were vast. When Matthew passed away very unexpectedly in 2011, his friends decided to organize a series of conferences in his memory. This volume, the sixth in the series, contains proceedings from the fifth conference held in his memory 7 November 2020 and reflects many of the topics that Matthew loved, centered on the theme of the temple: past, present, and future.

Chapters relating to the ancient past of the Bible and the Book of Mormon provide new insights into temple themes in Ruth, sacred names of Moses and Jesus Christ, prayer with uplifted hands, temple iconography of cherubim and seraphim, ritual purity in 3 Nephi 19, the rites of the Raqchi Temple in Peru, and sacred space in the early Christian Church. Of great significance to the present era is a chapter on women and the priesthood in the contemporary Church. And looking toward the future is a chapter on the Millennial Temple in Jackson County, Missouri in the context of its historic past.

The purpose of the book series is to increase understanding and appreciation of temple rituals and doctrines, and to encourage participation in the redeeming work of family history and temple worship.

Riley, Jonathon. “Archaism or Translation Technique?: Hebraisms in the Book of Moses.” Presented at the conference entitled “Tracing Ancient Threads of the Book of Moses” (April 23-24, 2021), Provo, UT: Brigham Young University 2021.
Riley, Jonathon. “Hebraisms in the Book of Moses: Laying Groundwork and Finding a Way Forward.” In Tracing Ancient Threads in the Book of Moses: Inspired Origins, Temple Contexts, and Literary Qualities, Volume 2. Edited by Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, David R. Seely, John W. Welch and Scott Gordon, 703–32. Orem, UT; Springville, UT; Redding, CA; Tooele, UT: The Interpreter Foundation, Book of Mormon Central, FAIR, and Eborn Books, 2021.
Robinson, Stephen E. “The Apocalypse of Adam.” BYU Studies Quarterly 17, no. 2 (1977): 131-54.

In most forms of Gnosticism secret oral tradition is often associated with accounts of the creation of the world, the experiences of Adam and Eve in the Garden, and the fall of man. It is usually in this creation setting or in a temple or on a mountaintop that Gnosticism places the revelation of the esoteric mysteries and the knowledge needed to thwart the archontic powers and return to God.

Gnosticism is primarily concerned with the questions, Who am I? Where am I from? and What is my destiny? That the answers to these questions are often associated with the creation, the Garden, and the fall of man is probably due to the Gnostic presupposition that the end of all things is to be found in their beginning. Of those documents which manifest this concern, the Nag Hammadi Apocalypse of Adam is perhaps the prime example.

Robinson, Stephen E. “The Apocalypse of Adam.” BYU Studies 17, no. 2 (Winter 1977): 1–28.

In most forms of Gnosticism secret oral tradition is often associated with accounts of the creation of the world, the experiences of Adam and Eve in the Garden, and the fall of man. It is usually in this creation setting or in a temple or on a mountaintop that Gnosticism places the revelation of the esoteric mysteries and the knowledge needed to thwart the archontic powers and return to God.

Robinson, Stephen E. “The Book of Adam in Judaism and Early Christianity.” In The Man Adam, edited by Joseph Fielding McConkie and Robert L. Millet, 131–150. Salt Lake City, UT: Bookcraft, 1990.
Robinson, Stephen E. “Lying for God: The Uses of the Apocrypha.” In Apocryphal Writings and the Latter-day Saints, edited by C. Wilfred Griggs, 133–154. Provo, UT: BYU Religious Studies Center, 1986.

In this paper I intend to deal primarily with the element of deception in the production and employment of apocryphal literature, particularly as it is revealed by the devices of pseudonymity and pseudepigraphy. I am defining pseudonymity here as an author’s intentional adoption of another persona, not merely as a pen name but as an assumed identity. Thus the Testament of Solomon is pseudonymous because the author has clearly adopted the persona of Solomon and speaks, as Solomon, in the first person. On the other hand, Huckleberry Finn would not be pseudonymous by my definition even though Samuel Clemens used the nom de plume Mark Twain, because Clemens did not adopt a persona other than his own; that is, we may assume that Clemens did not return royalty checks made out to Mark Twain, but rather cashed them unashamedly. Sam Clemens was Mark Twain, and there was no real possibility of confusing one person for the other.

Robinson, Stephen E., ed. The Testament of Adam: An Examination of the Syriac and Greek Traditions. Dissertation Series 52, ed. Howard C. Kee and Douglas A. Knight. Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1982.
Roper, Matthew. “Adam in Ancient Texts and the Restoration.” On FAIR, https://www.fairlatterdaysaints.org. From the 2006 FairMormon Conference.
Roper, Matthew, and Kirk Magleby. “Time Vindicates the Prophet.” On FAIR, https://www.fairlatterdaysaints.org. From the 2019 FairMormon Conference.